René Carmille (born Trémolat, Dordogne, 1886; died Dachau, Bavaria, January 25, 1945) was a punched card computer expert and comptroller general of the French Army in the early 20th century. In World War II he was a double agent for the French Resistance and part of the Marco Polo Network. He ran the Demographics Department of Vichy and later INSEE, France's National Statistics Service. In this capacity, he sabotaged the Nazi census of France, saving untold numbers of Jewish people from death camps. He also used his department to help mobilize French resistance in Algeria.
Carmille was arrested in Lyon on February 3, 1944, he was interrogated for two days by Klaus Barbie but did not break under torture. He was caught by the Nazis and sent to Dachau where he died on January 25, 1945.