René Carmille

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René Carmille
Born(1886-01-08)8 January 1886
Died25 January 1945(1945-01-25) (aged 59)
OccupationComputer expert (Analog & Electromechanical) and comptroller general of the French Army

René Carmille (8 January 1886 – 25 January 1945) was a French military officer, civil servant, and member of the French Resistance. During World War II, in his office at the government's Demographics Department, Carmille sabotaged the Nazi census of France, thus saving tens of thousands of Jewish people from death camps.[1]


IEEE describes Carmille as being an early ethical hacker: "Over the course of two years, Carmille and his group purposely delayed the process by mishandling the punch cards. He also hacked his own machines, reprogramming them so that they’d never punch information from Column 11 [which indicated religion] onto any census card."[2] He also used his department to help mobilize French resistance in Algeria.

Arrest and deportation[edit]

Carmille was arrested in Lyon on 3 February 1944. He was interrogated for two days by Klaus Barbie but did not break under torture. He was sent to Dachau where he died on 25 January 1945.[3]

In popular culture[edit]

A short documentary was released about Carmille in 2010 called Interregnum[4] which stars Nicole Stamp.[5]



  1. ^ Black, Edwin (2012) [2011]. IBM and the Holocaust : the strategic alliance between Nazi Germany and America's most powerful corporation. Dialog Press. ISBN 978-0-914153-27-6. OCLC 960095696.
  2. ^ Amanda Davis, "A History of Hacking." The Institute 6 March 2015.
  3. ^ Black 2001, pp. 320–332
  4. ^ Interregenum: The First Hacker. Nick Fox-Gieg. 2011. Video on YouTube; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2012-01-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-26. Retrieved 2012-01-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)