Wage levels in the high-income economies are approximately five times the level of wages for employment in similar occupations in the developing nations on average, after adjusting for purchasing power party.19 This provides an obvious incentive for migration, and indeed, hopeful migrants often take great personal risks to make the journey to the United States, Europe, and even developing-country destinations. In part because of these incentives, by 2010, there were an estimated 200 million migrants worldwide. But about half of all migrants leaving a developing nation move to other developing nations. As noted in Chapters 2 and 8, there are legitimate concerns that out-migration can hamper development prospects because of the loss of skilled workers via this “brain drain.” Balancing this concern is the benefit through remittances to relatives in migrants’ countries of origin, beyond the gains to the successful (legal or illegal) migrants themselves. When migrants are low-skilled and the recipients of remittances are poor, the potential development and poverty reduction advantages become clear. Migrants often build houses for their families and send money vital for keeping children in school and better-fed. Thus remittances now provide a significant pathway out of poverty. Indeed, the World Bank reports that based on household surveys, remittances have substantially reduced poverty in such countries as Guatemala, Uganda, Ghana, and Bangladesh. Figure 14.3 shows various resource flows to developing countries over the period 1990–2008. Remittances have increased dramatically in this century, exceeding 5% of GDP of low-income countries, outpacing FDI and approaching inflows from aid. However, remittance flows are very uneven across developing countries. Table 14.1 lists the top 15 remittance recipient countries, ranked by dollars and by share of GDP, in 2008. India and China had the largest remittances, but Mexico was in third place. And as the table shows, in 15 countries, remittances represented at least 11% of GDP. Note, however, that in the wake of the financial crisis, remittances declined in all regions from 2008 into 2010 except in South Asia, where they remained stable. The growth of recorded remittances is due in part to improved accounting; some analysts view even the statistics of recent years to be subject to considerable undercounting. But other important factors include the rising number of migrants and advances in financial intermediation that reduce the costs to migrants of remitting funds to their families. Thus the rapid rise in remittances is a genuine phenomenon. Further reductions in costs and other impediments to remittances would also lead to further benefits. It is important to stress, however, that migration is not always voluntary and may result from human trafficking; even when departure is voluntary, it is often done with imperfect information about working conditions; and exploitation and abuse are not uncommon. Clearly, for migration to bring the maximum social benefit to people in developing countries, improved regulations and protections for what the International Labor Organization terms “irregular status” migrants and the working conditions of migrants will be essential, as will improved willingness of developed countries to accept reasonable increases in migration.
In modern business scenario, reports play a major role in the progress of business. Reports are the backbone to the thinking process of the establishment and they are responsible, to a great extent, in evolving an efficient or inefficient work environment.
The significance of the reports includes:
- Reports present adequate information on various aspects of the business.
- All the skills and the knowledge of the professionals are communicated through reports.
- Reports help the top line in decision making.
- A rule and balanced report also helps in problem solving.
- Reports communicate the planning, policies and other matters regarding an organization to the masses. News reports play the role of ombudsman and levy checks and balances on the establishment.
One of the most common formats for presenting reports is IMRAD—introduction, methods, results, and discussion. This structure, standard for the genre, mirrors traditional publication of scientific research and summons the ethos and credibility of that discipline. Reports are not required to follow this pattern and may use alternative methods such as the problem-solution format, wherein the author first lists an issue and then details what must be done to fix the problem. Transparency and a focus on quality are keys to writing a useful report. Accuracy is also important. Faulty numbers in a financial report could lead to disastrous consequences.
Reports use features such as tables, graphics, pictures, voice, or specialized vocabulary in order to persuade a specific audience to undertake an action or inform the reader of the subject at hand. Some common elements of written reports include headings to indicate topics and help the reader locate relevant information quickly, and visual elements such as charts, tables and figures, which are useful for breaking up large sections of text and making complex issues more accessible. Lengthy written reports will almost always contain a table of contents, appendices, footnotes, and references. A bibliography or list of references will appear at the end of any credible report and citations are often included within the text itself. Complex terms are explained within the body of the report or listed as footnotes in order to make the report easier to follow. A short summary of the report's contents, called an abstract, may appear in the beginning so that the audience knows what the report will cover. Online reports often contain hyperlinks to internal or external sources as well.
Verbal reports differ from written reports in the minutiae of their format, but they still educate or advocate for a course of action. Quality reports will be well researched and the speaker will list their sources if at all possible.
A typical report would include the following sections in it:
- Title page
- Executive summary
- Table of contents
- Discussion or body
- Reference list
Some examples of reports are:
- Annual reports
- Auditor's reports
- Book reports
- Bound report
- Retail report
- Census reports
- Credit reports
- Demographic reports
- Expense report
- Experience report
- Incident report
- Inspection reports
- Military reports
- Police reports
- Policy reports
- Informal reports
- Progress reports
- Investigative reports
- Technical or scientific reports
- Trip reports
- White papers
- Appraisal reports
- Workplace reports[unreliable source?]
- Customer relationship management
- Data quality
- Decision support system
- Enterprise application integration
- Enterprise resource planning
- Global Reporting Initiative
- Grey Literature International Steering Committee – International guidelines for the production of scientific and technical reports
- Management information system