Self-portrait in miniature, circa 1770
5 November 1742|
|Died||4 July 1821
|Known for||Painter of Portrait Miniatures|
Richard Cosway RA (5 November 1742 – 4 July 1821) was a leading English portrait painter of the Regency era, noted for his miniatures. He was a contemporary of John Smart, George Engleheart, William Wood, and Richard Crosse. His wife was the Italian-born painter Maria Cosway, a close friend of Thomas Jefferson.
Richard Cosway was born in Tiverton, Devon, the son of a schoolmaster. He was initially educated at Blundell's School but at the age of twelve he was allowed to travel to London to take lessons in painting. He won a prize from the Society of Artists in 1754 and by 1760 had established his own business. He exhibited his first works at the age of 20 in 1762 and was soon in demand.
He was one of the first group of associate members of the Royal Academy, elected in August 1770, and was elected a full member the following March, on the casting vote of the academy's president, Sir Joshua Reynolds. He is included in Johan Zoffany's group portrait of the members of the academy (begun in 1771); a late addition to the composition, he was painted on an extra strip of canvas, attached to the right-hand side of the painting.
Career in art
He painted the future King George IV in 1780 and was appointed Painter to the Prince of Wales in 1785—the only time this title was ever awarded. His subjects included the Prince's first wife, Maria Anne Fitzherbert, and various English and French aristocrats, including Madame du Barry, mistress of King Louis XV of France.
Cosway's pupils included Andrew Plimer (1763–1837).
On 18 January 1781, Cosway married the Anglo-Italian artist Maria Hadfield. Maria was a composer, musician and authority on girls' education and was much admired by Thomas Jefferson, who wrote letters to her decrying her marriage to another man and kept an engraving made from one of Cosway's paintings of Maria at Monticello.
The Cosways' marriage is thought to be an arranged marriage and later a marriage of convenience due to his being 20 years her senior. Richard was "well known as a libertine and commonly described as resembling a monkey." The film Jefferson in Paris depicts Maria Cosway's romance with Thomas Jefferson and also depicts Richard Cosway as effeminate, something which is not certain historically.
Richard realized his wife's talent and helped her to develop it.
In 1784, the Cosways moved into Schomberg House, Pall Mall, which became a fashionable salon for London society. In 1791 they moved to a larger house in Stratford Place. However, the marriage did not last, eventually being annulled.
In later life, Cosway also suffered from mental disorders and spent some time in various institutions. He died in London in 1821 and was buried at Marylebone New Church. Sir John Soane bought more than 30 objects put up for sale at auction after Cosway's death.
Examples of Cosway's work
- J.E. Hodgson and Frederick A. Eaton, The Royal Academy and its Members 1768-1830. London: John Murray, 1905; pg. 113.
- "Johan Zoffany: Finding the founders". RA Magazine. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "How England first saw Bonaparte: a painting by Francesco Cossia commissioned by Maria Cosway in 1797 was the first true portrait of Napoleon to be seen in England. It was acquired by Sir John Soane, who, as Xavier F. Salomon and Christopher Woodward explain, juxtaposed it with a miniature by Isabey in a graphic comparison of the youthful hero with the tyrannical dicatator". Apollo. Retrieved 2007-08-01.[dead link]
- "An artistic alliance - Richard and Maria Cosway - English artists". Magazine Antiques. December 1995. Retrieved 2007-08-01.[dead link]
- DeMauri, Stephen (December 2003). "Thomas Jefferson's Engraving of Maria Cosway". Monticello Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-07-13. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- "JEFFERSON’S PARIS". American Heritage. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- A Cyclopaedia of Female Biography by Henry Gardiner, p.214
- Gerald Barnett, Richard and Maria Cosway: A Biography. Tiverton, Devon, UK: Westcountry Books, 1995.
- Philippe Bordes, "Richard and Maria Cosway, Edinburgh," Burlington Magazine, vol. 137, no. 1111 (Oct. 1995), pp. 700–702. In JSTOR.
- Daphne Foskett, Miniatures: Dictionary and Guide. London: Antique Collectors' Club, 1987.
- Duncan MacMillan, "The Cosways," RSA Journal, vol. 143, no. 5464 (Nov. 1995), pp. 65–66. In JSTOR.
- "Richard Cosway, 'The Macaroni Miniature Painter,'" The Art Amateur, vol. 8, no. 2 (Jan. 1883), pg. 38. In JSTOR.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cosway, Richard". Encyclopædia Britannica 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Fagan, Louis Alexander (1887). "Cosway, Richard". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography 12. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Lloyd, Stephen. "Cosway, Richard (bap. 1742, d. 1821)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6383. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Richard Cosway.|
- Victoria and Albert Museum miniatures gallery
- Frits Lugt, Les marques de collections de dessins & d'estampes, 1921 and its Supplement 1956, L.628 and L.629, online edition
- A catalogue of the very curious, extensive, and valuable library of Richard Cosway, Esq. R.A, digital facsimile from Houghton Library, Harvard University.