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Apodemia mormo langei-02.JPG
Lange's metalmark
Apodemia mormo langei
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
(unranked): Rhopalocera
Superfamily: Papilionoidea
Family: Riodinidae
Subfamily: Riodininae

and see text

Echydna punctata, starry night
Cristalino River
Southern Amazon, Brazil

Riodininae is the largest of the three subfamilies within the metalmark butterfly family, Riodinidae.

A number of Riodininae genera are of uncertain affiliations.[1] They might belong in the Helicopini, but this needs further study. Such genera incertae sedis are:


  1. ^ See Savela (2007) for references.


Further reading[edit]

  • Glassberg, Jeffrey Butterflies through Binoculars, The West (2001)
  • Guppy, Crispin S. and Shepard, Jon H. Butterflies of British Columbia (2001)
  • James, David G. and Nunnallee, David Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies (2011)
  • Pelham, Jonathan Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada (2008)
  • Pyle, Robert Michael The Butterflies of Cascadia (2002)

External links[edit]