Rock Structure Rating
Rock Structure Rating (RSR) is a quantitative method for describing quality of a rock mass and appropriate ground support, in particular, for steel-rib support, developed by Wickham, Tiedemann and Skinner.
The RSR concept introduced a rating system for rock masses. It was the sum of weighted values in this classification system. There are considered two general categories:
- geotechnical parameters:
- rock type; joint pattern; joint orientations; type of discontinuities; major faults; shears and folds; rock material properties; weathering or alteration. and
- construction parameters:
- size of tunnel; direction of drive; method of excavation.
The RSR value of any tunnel section is obtained by summing the weighted numerical values determined for each parameter. The RSR concept is a very useful method for selecting steel rib support for rock tunnels. As with any empirical approach one should not apply the concept beyond the range of the sufficient and reliable data used for developing it. For this reason the RSR concept is not recommended for selection of rock bolts and concrete support.
- Wickham, G.E.; Tiedemann, H.R.; Skinner, E.H. (1972). "Support determination based on geologic predictions". In Lane, K.S.; Garfield, L.A. Proc. 1st North American Rapid Excavation & Tunnelling Conference (RETC), Chicago. 1. American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers (AIME), New York. pp. 43–64.
- Wickham, G.E.; Tiedemann, H.R.; Skinner, E.H. (1974). "Ground support prediction model - RSR concept". Proc. 2nd North American Rapid Excavation & Tunnelling Conference (RETC), San Francisco. 1. American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers (AIME), New York. pp. 691–707.
- Skinner, E.H. (1988). "A Ground Support Prediction Concept: The Rock Structure Rating (RSR) Model". In Kirkaldie, L. Rock Classification Systems for Engineering Purposes. ASTM International. pp. 43–64. doi:10.1520/STP48462S. ISBN 978-0-8031-0988-9.
- Bieniawski, Z.T. (1989). Engineering Rock Mass Classifications. Wiley-Interscience. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-471-60172-2.
- Hack, H.R.G.K. (25–28 November 2002). "An evaluation of slope stability classification. Keynote Lecture.". In Dinis da Gama, C.; Ribeira e Sousa, L. Proc. ISRM EUROCK’2002. Funchal, Madeira, Portugal: Sociedade Portuguesa de Geotecnia, Lisboa, Portugal. pp. 3–32. ISBN 972-98781-2-9.
- Pantelidis, L. (2009). "Rock slope stability assessment through rock mass classification systems". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 46 (2): 315–325. doi:10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.06.003.