Arunthathiyar is a Scheduled Caste community found in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The term has two distinct usages: for the purposes of the state government's positive discrimination program, in 2009 it was designated an umbrella term for the Arunthatiyar, Chakkiliyar, Madari, Madiga, Pagadai, Thoti and Adi Andhra (Adi Dravida) communities; while the Office of the Registrar-General, which administrates the census of India, does not recognise all of those communities as one.
At the 2001 census, 64 per cent of the Arunthathiyar population lived in rural areas of Tamil Nadu, which according to the Office of the Registrar-General makes them "comparatively an urbanised SC community". Their literacy rate of 54 per cent was less than other Scheduled Castes such as the Paraiyar, Adi Dravida but higher than the Chakkiliyar.
- Madurai Veeran, Commander-in-Chief of Naicker's, folk deity and protector of Madurai.
- Ondiveeran Commander-in-Chief of King Puli Thevar, Polygar of Nerkettumseval.
- Kuyili Army Commander of Queen Velu Nachiar ans first human suicide bomber in Indian history.
- P. Dhanapal, First Dalit Speaker of Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
- Rao Sahib L. C. Gurusamy - Politician, Educationist, former Labour Judge and founder of Arunthathiyar Mahasabha.
- "Tamil Nadu Government Gazette" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. 12 March 2009. p. 3. Retrieved 2015-04-05.
- "Tamil Nadu Date Highlights: The Scheduled Castes Census of India 2001" (PDF). Office of the Registrar-General. Retrieved 2015-04-05.
- Vannar, Gokul (18 July 2010). "The story of Madurai Veeran". New Indian Express. Retrieved 2015-04-05.