|Nickname(s): God's Own Country, Spice Garden of India|
Location of Kerala
|Coordinates (Thiruvananthapuram): Coordinates:|
|Statehood||1 November 1956|
|Capital and Largest City||Thiruvananthapuram|
|• Body||Government of Kerala|
|• Governor||P. Sathasivam|
|• Chief Minister||Pinarayi Vijayan (CPI(M))|
|• Chief Secretary||S.M. Vijayanand IAS|
|• Director General of Police||Lokanath Behera IPS|
|• Legislature||Unicameral (141 seats)†|
|• Total||38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,695 m (8,842 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||-2.2 m (−7.2 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-KL|
|HDI rank||1st (2011)|
|Literacy||93.9% (1st) (2011)|
|Spoken language||Malayalam, English|
|† 140 elected, 1 nominated|
Kerala (//), historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest state by population and is divided into 14 districts with the capital and the largest city being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.
The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for the European colonisation of India. After independence, Travancore and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949. In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara.
Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%; highest Human Development Index (HDI), 0.790 in 2011; the highest literacy rate, 93.91% in the 2011 census; the highest life expectancy, 77 years; and the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1000 men. The state has witnessed significant emigration, especially to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community. Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad.
The production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important. The state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres (370 mi), and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Flora and fauna
- 5 Subdivisions
- 6 Government and administration
- 7 Economy
- 8 Transport
- 9 Demographics
- 10 Religion
- 11 Education
- 12 Culture
- 13 Media
- 14 Sports
- 15 Tourism
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 External links
The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. "Keralam" may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam ("declivity of a hill or a mountain slope") or chera alam ("Land of the Cheras"). While "Kerala" may represent an imperfect Malayalam portmanteau fusing kera ("coconut palm tree") and alam ("land" or "location"). "Kerala" can also be derived from the word "Cheral" that refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings. The word "Cheral" is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake".
The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics. The word Kerala is first recorded (as Keralaputra, meaning Cherathala makan or Cheraman) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription (Rock Edict 2) left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka (274–237 BCE). The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra (Sanskrit for "son of Kerala"); or "son of Chera[s]". This contradicts a popular theory that its etymology derives "Kerala" from "Kera" (coconut tree in Malayalam). At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra.
According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu, hence Kerala is also called Parasurama Kshetram ("The Land of Parasurama"). Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari. The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation; so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, who spat holy poison and converted the soil into fertile lush green land. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land. The legend was later expanded, and found literary expression in the 17th or 18th century with Keralolpathi, which traces the origin of aspects of early Kerala society, such as land tenure and administration, to the story of Parasurama. In medieval times Kuttuvan may have emulated the Parasurama tradition by throwing his spear into the sea to symbolise his lordship over it.
Another much earlier Puranic character associated with Kerala is Mahabali, an Asura and a prototypical just king, who ruled the earth from Kerala. He won the war against the Devas, driving them into exile. The Devas pleaded before Lord Vishnu, who took his fifth incarnation as Vamana and pushed Mahabali down to Patala (the netherworld) to placate the Devas. There is a belief that, once a year during the Onam festival, Mahabali returns to Kerala. The Matsya Purana, among the oldest of the 18 Puranas, uses the Malaya Mountains of Kerala (and Tamil Nadu) as the setting for the story of Matsya, the first incarnation of Vishnu, and Manu, the first man and the king of the region.
A substantial portion of Kerala may have been under the sea in ancient times. Marine fossils have been found in an area near Changanacherry, thus supporting the hypothesis. Pre-historical archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area of the Idukki district. They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen). Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves, in Wayanad date back to the Neolithic era around 6000 BCE. Archaeological studies have identified Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala. The studies point to the development of ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic Age, through the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic Ages. Foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation; historians suggest a possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age.
Kerala has been a major spice exporter since 3000 BCE, according to Sumerian records and it is still referred to as the "Garden of Spices" or as the "Spice Garden of India". Kerala's spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. Arabs and Phoenicians established trade with Kerala during this period. The Land of Keralaputra was one of the four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya, and Satiyaputra. Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala. These territories once shared a common language and culture, within an area known as Tamilakam. While the Cheras ruled most of modern Kerala, its southern tip was in the kingdom of Pandyas, which had a trading port sometimes identified in ancient Western sources as Nelcynda (or Neacyndi) in Quilon. Later, the region fell under the control of the Pandyas, Cheras, and Cholas. Ays and Mushikas were two other dynasties of ancient Kerala, whose kingdoms lay to the south and north of Cheras respectively.
In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper. The Cheras had trading links with China, West Asia, Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire. In foreign-trade circles the region was known as Male or Malabar. Muziris, Berkarai, and Nelcynda were among the principal ports at that time. The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces; contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper. One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala was Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana; the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus.
Merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala. The Jewish connection with Kerala started in 573 BCE. Arabs also had trade links with Kerala, starting before the 4th century BCE, as Herodotus (484–413 BCE) noted that goods brought by Arabs from Kerala were sold to the Jews at Eden. They intermarried with local people, resulting in formation of the Muslim Mappila community. In the 4th century, some Christians also migrated from Persia and joined the early Syrian Christian community who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. Mappila was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; Jewish, Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas, and Muslim Mappilas. The earliest Saint Thomas Christian Churches, Cheraman Juma Masjid (629 CE)—the first mosque of India—and Paradesi Synagogue (1568 CE)—the oldest active synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations—were built in Kerala.
Early medieval period
A second Chera Kingdom (c. 800–1102), also known as Kulasekhara dynasty of Mahodayapuram, was established by Kulasekhara Varman, which ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. During the early part of the Kulasekara period, the southern region from Nagerkovil to Thiruvalla was ruled by Ay kings, who lost their power in the 10th century, making the region a part of the Kulasekara empire. Under Kulasekhara rule, Kerala witnessed a developing period of art, literature, trade and the Bhakti movement of Hinduism. A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils, became linguistically separate during this period.[verification needed] For local administration, the empire was divided into provinces under the rule of Naduvazhis, with each province comprising a number of Desams under the control of chieftains, called as Desavazhis.
The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. Buddhism and Jainism disappeared from the land. The social system became fractured with divisions on caste lines. Finally, the Kulasekhara dynasty was subjugated in 1102 by the combined attack of Later Pandyas and Later Cholas. However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was divided into thirty small warring principalities; the most powerful of them were the kingdom of Samuthiri in the north, Venad in the south and Kochi in the middle. In the 18th Century, Travancore King Sree Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma annexed all the kingdoms up to Northern Kerala through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to pre-eminence in Kerala. The Kochi ruler sued for peace with Anizham Thirunal and Malabar came under direct British rule until India became independent.
The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean stayed with Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages. However, the dominance of Middle East traders was challenged in the European Age of Discovery during which the spice trade, particularly in black pepper, became an influential activity for European traders. Around the 15th century, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular, culminating in Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498. The Zamorin of Kozhikode permitted the new visitors to trade with his subjects such that Portuguese trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and a fort. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Zamorin and led to conflicts between them. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Zamorin and the King of Kochi allied with Kochi. When Francisco de Almeida was appointed as Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, his headquarters was established at Fort Kochi (Fort Emmanuel) rather than in Kozhikode. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a few fortresses on the Malabar coast. However, the Portuguese suffered setbacks from attacks by Zamorin forces; especially from naval attacks under the leadership Kozhikode admirals known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. In 1571, the Portuguese were defeated by the Zamorin forces in the battle at Chaliyam fort.
The Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who during the conflicts between the Kozhikode and the Kochi, gained control of the trade. The Dutch in turn were weakened by constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741. An agreement, known as "Treaty of Mavelikkara", was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvement in the region. Marthanda Varma annexed northern kingdoms through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to a position of preeminence in Kerala.
In 1766, Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore invaded northern Kerala. His son and successor, Tipu Sultan, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company, resulting in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. Tipu ultimately ceded the Malabar District and South Kanara to the company in the 1790s; both were annexed to the Madras Presidency of British India in 1792. The company forged tributary alliances with Kochi in 1791 and Travancore in 1795. By the end of 18th century, the whole of Kerala fell under the control of the British, either administered directly or under suzerainty. There were major revolts in Kerala during the independence movement in the 20th century; most notable among them is the 1921 Malabar Rebellion and the social struggles in Travancore. In the Malabar Rebellion, Mappila Muslims of Malabar rioted against Hindu zamindars and the British Raj. Some social struggles against caste inequalities also erupted in the early decades of 20th century, leading to the 1936 Temple Entry Proclamation that opened Hindu temples in Travancore to all castes.
Post colonial period
After British India was partitioned in 1947 into India and Pakistan, Travancore and Kochi, part of the Union of India were merged on 1 July 1949 to form Travancore-Cochin. On 1 November 1956, the taluk of Kasargod in the South Kanara district of Madras, the Malabar district of Madras, and Travancore-Cochin, without four southern taluks (which joined Tamil Nadu), merged to form the state of Kerala under the States Reorganisation Act. A Communist-led government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad resulted from the first elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1957. It was one of the earliest elected Communist governments, after Communist success in the 1945 elections in the Republic of San Marino.
The state is wedged between the Lakshadweep Sea and the Western Ghats. Lying between northern latitudes 8°18' and 12°48' and eastern longitudes 74°52' and 77°22', Kerala experiences the humid equatorial tropic climate. The state has a coast of 590 km (370 mi) and the width of the state varies between 11 and 121 kilometres (7 and 75 mi). Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands; rugged and cool mountainous terrain, the central mid-lands; rolling hills, and the western lowlands; coastal plains. Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala's terrain. A catastrophic flood in Kerala in 1341 CE drastically modified its terrain and consequently affected its history; it also created a natural harbour for spice transport. The eastern region of Kerala consists of high mountains, gorges and deep-cut valleys immediately west of the Western Ghats' rain shadow. 41 of Kerala's west-flowing rivers, and 3 of its east-flowing ones originate in this region. The Western Ghats form a wall of mountains interrupted only near Palakkad; hence also known Palghat, where the Palakkad Gap breaks. The Western Ghats rise on average to 1,500 m (4920 ft) above sea level, while the highest peaks reach around 2,500 m (8200 ft). Anamudi, the highest peak in south India, is at an elevation of 2,695 metres (8,842 ft).
Kerala's western coastal belt is relatively flat compared to the eastern region, and is criss-crossed by a network of interconnected brackish canals, lakes, estuaries, and rivers known as the Kerala Backwaters. The state's largest lake Vembanad, dominates the backwaters; it lies between Alappuzha and Kochi and is about 200 km2 (77 sq mi) in area. Around eight percent of India's waterways are found in Kerala. Kerala's 44 rivers include the Periyar; 244 kilometres (152 mi), Bharathapuzha; 209 kilometres (130 mi), Pamba; 176 kilometres (109 mi), Chaliyar; 169 kilometres (105 mi), Kadalundipuzha; 130 kilometres (81 mi), Chalakudipuzha; 130 kilometres (81 mi), Valapattanam; 129 kilometres (80 mi) and the Achankovil River; 128 kilometres (80 mi). The average length of the rivers is 64 kilometres (40 mi). Many of the rivers are small and entirely fed by monsoon rain. As Kerala's rivers are small and lacking in delta, they are more prone to environmental effects. The rivers face problems such as sand mining and pollution. The state experiences several natural hazards like landslides, floods and droughts. The state was also affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.
With around 120–140 rainy days per year,:80 Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon. Around 65% of the rainfall occurs from June to August corresponding to the Southwest monsoon, and the rest from September to December corresponding to Northeast monsoon. The moisture-laden winds of the Southwest monsoon, on reaching the southernmost point of the Indian Peninsula, because of its topography, divides into two branches; the "Arabian Sea Branch" and the "Bay of Bengal Branch". The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest monsoon first hits the Western Ghats, making Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest monsoon. The distribution of pressure patterns is reversed in the Northeast monsoon, during this season the cold winds from North India pick up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and precipitate it on the east coast of peninsular India. In Kerala, the influence of the Northeast monsoon is seen in southern districts only. Kerala's rainfall averages 2,923 mm (115 in) annually. Some of Kerala's drier lowland regions average only 1,250 mm (49 in); the mountains of the eastern Idukki district receive more than 5,000 mm (197 in) of orographic precipitation: the highest in the state. In eastern Kerala, a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. During the summer, the state is prone to gale-force winds, storm surges, cyclone-related torrential downpours, occasional droughts, and rises in sea level.:26, 46, 52 The mean daily temperature ranges from 19.8 °C to 36.7 °C. Mean annual temperatures range from 25.0–27.5 °C in the coastal lowlands to 20.0–22.5 °C in the eastern highlands.:65
|Climate data for Kerala|
|Average high °C (°F)||30
|Average low °C (°F)||22
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||8.7
Flora and fauna
|Flower||Golden shower tree flower|
Most of the biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Western Ghats. Three quarters of the land area of Kerala was under thick forest up to 18th century. As of 2004[update], over 25% of India's 15,000 plant species are in Kerala. Out of the 4,000 flowering plant species; 1,272 of which are endemic to Kerala, 900 are medicinal, and 159 are threatened.:11 Its 9,400 km2 of forests include tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests (lower and middle elevations—3,470 km2), tropical moist and dry deciduous forests (mid-elevations—4,100 km2 and 100 km2, respectively), and montane subtropical and temperate (shola) forests (highest elevations—100 km2). Altogether, 24% of Kerala is forested.:12 Three of the world's Ramsar Convention listed wetlands—Lake Sasthamkotta, Ashtamudi Lake and the Vembanad-Kol wetlands—are in Kerala, as well as 1455.4 km2 of the vast Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Subjected to extensive clearing for cultivation in the 20th century,:6–7 much of the remaining forest cover is now protected from clearfelling. Eastern Kerala's windward mountains shelter tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests, which are common in the Western Ghats. The world's oldest teak plantation 'Conolly's Plot' is in Nilambur.
Kerala's fauna are notable for their diversity and high rates of endemism: it includes 118 species of mammals (1 endemic), 500 species of birds, 189 species of freshwater fish, 173 species of reptiles (10 of them endemic), and 151 species of amphibians (36 endemic). These are threatened by extensive habitat destruction, including soil erosion, landslides, salinisation, and resource extraction. In the forests, sonokeling, Dalbergia latifolia, anjili, mullumurikku, Erythrina, and Cassia number among the more than 1,000 species of trees in Kerala. Other plants include bamboo, wild black pepper, wild cardamom, the calamus rattan palm, and aromatic vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides.:12 Indian elephant, Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, Nilgiri tahr, common palm civet, and grizzled giant squirrels are also found in the forests.:12, 174–175 Reptiles include the king cobra, viper, python, and mugger crocodile. Kerala's birds include the Malabar trogon, the great hornbill, Kerala laughingthrush, darter and southern hill myna. In the lakes, wetlands, and waterways, fish such as kadu; stinging catfish and choottachi; orange chromide—Etroplus maculatus are found.:163–165
The state's 14 districts are distributed among six regions: North Malabar (far-north Kerala), South Malabar (northern Kerala), Kochi (central Kerala), Northern Travancore, Central Travancore (southern Kerala) and Southern Travancore (far-south Kerala). The districts which serve as administrative regions for taxation purposes are further subdivided into 75 taluks, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records. Kerala's taluks are further sub-divided into 1,453 revenue villages. Since the 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution of India, the local government institutions function as the third tier of government, which constitutes 14 District Panchayats, 152 Block Panchayats, 978 Grama Panchayats, 60 Municipalities, six Corporations and one Township. Mahé, a part of the Indian union territory of Puducherry, though 647 kilometres (402 mi) away from it, is a coastal exclave surrounded by Kerala on all of its landward approaches. The Kannur District surrounds Mahé on three sides with the Kozhikode District on the fourth.
There are six Municipal corporations in Kerala that govern Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode and Kannur. The Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation is the largest corporation in Kerala while Kochi metropolitan area named Kochi UA is the largest urban agglomeration. According to a survey by economics research firm Indicus Analytivs in 2007, Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Kochi and Kannur are among the "best cities in India to live"; the survey used parameters such as health, education, environment, safety, public facilities and entertainment to rank the cities.
Government and administration
Kerala hosts two major political alliances: the United Democratic Front (UDF), led by the Indian National Congress; and the Left Democratic Front (LDF), led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)). As of 2016[update], the LDF is the ruling coalition; Pinarayi Vijayan of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) is the Chief Minister, while Ramesh Chennithala of the UDF is the Leader of Opposition. Strikes, protests and marches are ubiquitous in Kerala because of the comparatively strong presence of labour unions. According to the Constitution of India, Kerala has a parliamentary system of representative democracy; universal suffrage is granted to residents. The government is organised into the three branches:
- Legislature: The unicameral legislature, the Kerala Legislative Assembly popularly known as Niyamasabha, comprises elected members and special office bearers; the Speaker and Deputy Speaker elected by the members from among themselves. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker and in the Speaker's absence, by the Deputy Speaker. The state has 140 assembly constituencies. The state elects 20 and 9 members for representation in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha respectively.
- Executive: The Governor of Kerala is the constitutional head of state, and is appointed by the President of India. P Sathasivam is the Governor of Kerala. The executive authority is headed by the Chief Minister of Kerala, who is the head of government and is vested with extensive executive powers; the head of the majority party in the Legislative Assembly is appointed to the post by the Governor. The Council of Ministers has its members appointed by the Governor, taking the advice of the Chief Minister. The executive administration is based in Thiruvananthapuram at State Secretariat complex. Each district has a district administrator appointed by government called District collector for executive administration. Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs.
- Judiciary: The judiciary consists of the Kerala High Court and a system of lower courts. The High Court, located in Kochi, has a Chief Justice along with 23 permanent and seven additional pro tempore justices as of 2012[update]. The high court also hears cases from the Union Territory of Lakshadweep.
The local government bodies; Panchayat, Municipalities and Corporations have existed in Kerala since 1959, however, the major initiative to decentralise the governance was started in 1993, conforming to the constitutional amendments of central government in this direction. With the enactment of Kerala Panchayati Raj Act and Kerala Municipality Act in 1994, the state implemented reforms in local self-governance. The Kerala Panchayati Raj Act envisages a 3-tier system of local government with Gram panchayat, Block panchayat and District Panchayat forming a hierarchy. The acts ensure a clear demarcation of power among these institutions. However, the Kerala Municipality Act envisages a single-tier system for urban areas, with the institution of municipality designed to par with the Gram panchayat of the former system. Substantial administrative, legal and financial powers are delegated to these bodies to ensure efficient decentralisation. As per the present norms, the state government devolves about 40 per cent of the state plan outlay to the local government.
After independence, the state was managed as a democratic socialist welfare economy. From the 1990s, liberalisation of the mixed economy allowed onerous Licence Raj restrictions against capitalism and foreign direct investment to be lightened, leading to economic expansion and an increase in employment. In the fiscal year 2007–2008, the nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP) was ₹1,624 billion (US$24 billion). GSDP growth; 9.2% in 2004–2005 and 7.4% in 2003–2004 had been high compared to an average of 2.3% annually in the 1980s and between 5.1%:8 and 5.99% in the 1990s.:8 The state recorded 8.93% growth in enterprises from 1998 to 2005, higher than the national rate of 4.80%. The Human Development Index rating of Kerala is the highest in India at 0.790. The "Kerala phenomenon" or "Kerala model of development" of very high human development and in comparison low economic development has resulted from a strong service sector.:48:1
Kerala's economy depends on emigrants working in foreign countries, mainly in Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and remittances annually contribute more than a fifth of GSDP. In 2008, the Persian Gulf countries together had a Keralite population of more than 2.5 million, who sent home annually a sum of US$6.81 billion, which is the highest among Indian states and more than 15.13% of remittances to India in 2008. In 2012, Kerala still received the highest remittances of all states: US$11.3 billion, which was nearly 16% of the US$71 billion remittances to the country. In 2015, NRI deposits in Kerala have soared to over ₹1 lakh crore (US$15 billion), amounting to one-sixth of all the money deposited in NRI accounts, which comes to about ₹7 lakh crore (US$100 billion). However, a study commissioned by the Kerala State Planning Board, suggested that the state look for other reliable sources of income, instead of relying on remittances to finance its expenditure. According to a study done in 2013, Kerala loses about ₹17,500 crore (US$2.6 billion) every year, through the sizeable population of migrant labourers in Kerala.
The tertiary sector comprises services such as transport, storage, communications, tourism, banking, insurance and real estate. In 2011–2012, it contributed 63.22% of the state's GDP, agriculture and allied sectors contributed 15.73%, while manufacturing, construction and utilities contributed 21.05%. Nearly half of Kerala's people depend on agriculture alone for income. Around 600 varieties:5 of rice, which is Kerala's most used staple and cereal crop,:5 are harvested from 3105.21 km2; a decline from 5883.4 km2 in 1990.:5 688,859 tonnes of rice are produced per year. Other key crops include coconut; 899,198 ha, tea, coffee; 23% of Indian production,:13 or 57,000 tonnes,:6–7 rubber, cashews, and spices—including pepper, cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
Traditional industries manufacturing items; coir, handlooms, and handicrafts employ around one million people. Kerala supplies 60% of the total global produce of white coir fibre. India's first coir factory was set up in Alleppey in 1859–60. The Central Coir Research Institute was established there in 1959. As per the 2006–2007 census by SIDBI, there are 1,468,104 micro, small and medium enterprises in Kerala employing 3,031,272 people. The KSIDC has promoted more than 650 medium and large manufacturing firms in Kerala, creating employment for 72,500 people. A mining sector of 0.3% of GSDP involves extraction of ilmenite, kaolin, bauxite, silica, quartz, rutile, zircon, and sillimanite. Other major sectors are tourism, manufacturing, home gardens, animal husbandry and business process outsourcing.
As of March 2002, Kerala's banking sector comprised 3341 local branches: each branch served 10,000 people, lower than the national average of 16,000; the state has the third-highest bank penetration among Indian states. On 1 October 2011, Kerala became the first state in the country to have at least one banking facility in every village. Unemployment in 2007 was estimated at 9.4%; chronic issues are underemployment, low employability of youth, and a low female labour participation rate of only 13.5%,:5, 13 as is the practice of Nokku kooli, "wages for looking on". By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively.
Kerala has focused more attention towards growth of Information Technology sector with formation of Technopark, Thiruvananthapuram which is one of the largest IT employer in Kerala. It was the first technology park in India and with the inauguration of the Thejaswini complex on 22 February 2007, Technopark became the largest IT Park in India. Software giants like Infosys, Oracle, Tata Consultancy Services, Capgemini, HCL, UST Global, Nest and Suntec have offices in the state. The state has a second major IT hub, the Infopark centred in Kochi with "spokes"(it acts as the "hub") in Thrissur and Alleppy. As of 2014[update], Infopark generates one-third of total IT Revenues of the state with key offices of IT majors like Tata Consultancy Services, Cognizant, Wipro, UST Global, IBS Software Services etc. and Multinational corporations like KPMG, Ernst & Young, EXL Services, Etisalat DB Telecom, Nielsen Audio, Xerox ACS, Tata ELXSI etc. Kochi also has another major project SmartCity under construction, built in partnership with Dubai Government. A third major IT Hub is under construction centred around Kozhikode known as Cyberpark.
The state's budget of 2012–2013 was ₹481.42 billion (US$7.2 billion). The state government's tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) amounted to ₹217.22 billion (US$3.2 billion) in 2010–2011; up from ₹176.25 billion (US$2.6 billion) in 2009–2010. Its non-tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Kerala reached ₹19,308 million (US$290 million) in 2010–2011. However, Kerala's high ratio of taxation to GSDP has not alleviated chronic budget deficits and unsustainable levels of government debt, which have impacted social services. A record total of 223 hartals were observed in 2006, resulting in a revenue loss of over ₹20 billion (US$300 million). Kerala's 10% rise in GDP is 3% more than the national GDP. In 2013, capital expenditure rose 30% compared to the national average of 5%, owners of two-wheelers rose by 35% compared to the national rate of 15%, and the teacher-pupil ratio rose 50% from 2:100 to 4:100.
In November 2015, the Ministry of Urban Development selected seven cities of Kerala for a comprehensive development program known as the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT). A package of ₹25 lakh (US$37,000) was declared for each of the cities to develop service level improvement plan (SLIP), a plan for better functioning of the local urban bodies in the cities of Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode, and Palakkad.
The major change in agriculture in Kerala occurred in the 1970s when production of rice fell due to increased availability of rice all over India and decreased availability of labour. Consequently, investment in rice production decreased and a major portion of the land shifted to the cultivation of perennial tree crops and seasonal crops. Profitability of crops fell due to a shortage of farm labour, the high price of land, and the uneconomic size of operational holdings.
Kerala produces 97% of the national output of black pepper and accounts for 85% of the natural rubber in the country. Coconut, tea, coffee, cashew, and spices—including cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg are the main agricultural products. 80% of India's export quality cashew kernels are prepared in Kollam. The key agricultural staple is rice, with varieties grown in extensive paddy fields. Home gardens made up a significant portion of the agricultural sector. Related animal husbandry is touted by proponents as a means of alleviating rural poverty and unemployment among women, the marginalised, and the landless. The state government promotes these activities via educational campaigns and the development of new cattle breeds such as the Sunandini.
Though the contribution of agricultural sector to the state economy was on the decline in 2012–13, through the strength of the allied livestock sector, it has picked up from 7.03% (2011–12) to 7.2%. In the 2013–14 fiscal period, the contribution has been estimated at a high of 7.75%. The total growth of the farm sector has recorded a 4.39% increase in 2012–13, over a paltry 1.3% growth in the previous fiscal year. The agricultural sector has a share of 9.34% in the sectoral distribution of Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Price, while the secondary and tertiary sectors has contributed 23.94% and 66.72% respectively.
With a 590 km of coastal belt, 400,000 hectares of inland water resources and approximately 220,000 active fishermen, Kerala is one of the leading producers of fish in India. According to 2003–04 reports, about 1.1 million people earn their livelihood from fishing and allied activities such as drying, processing, packaging, exporting and transporting fisheries. The annual yield of the sector was estimated as 608,000 tons in 2003–04. This contributes to about 3% of the total economy of the state. In 2006, around 22% of the total Indian marine fishery yield was from Kerala. During the southwest monsoon, a suspended mud bank develops along the shore, which in turn leads to calm ocean water, peaking the output of the fishing industry. This phenomenon is locally called chakara. The waters provide a large variety of fish: pelagic species; 59%, demersal species; 23%, crustaceans, molluscs and others for 18%. Around 1.050 million fishermen haul an annual catch of 668,000 tonnes as of a 1999–2000 estimate; 222 fishing villages are strung along the 590 km coast. Another 113 fishing villages dot the hinterland. Kerala's coastal belt of Karunagappally is known for high background radiation from thorium-containing monazite sand. In some coastal panchayats, median outdoor radiation levels are more than 4 mGy/yr and, in certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy/yr.
Kerala has 145,704 kilometres (90,536 mi) of roads, which accounts for 4.2% of India's total. This translates to about 4.62 kilometres (2.87 mi) of road per thousand population, compared to an average of 2.59 kilometres (1.61 mi) in the country. Roads in Kerala include 1,524 kilometres (947 mi) of national highway; 2.6% of the nation's total, 4,341.6 kilometres (2,697.7 mi) of state highway and 18,900 kilometres (11,700 mi) of district roads. Most of Kerala's west coast is accessible through two national highways, NH 47 and NH 17; and the eastern side is accessible through state highways. There is also a hill highway proposed, to provide access to the eastern hills. National Highway 17, with the longest stretch of road (421 kilometres (262 mi)) connects Edapally to Panvel; it starts from Kochi and passes through Kozhikode, Kannur, Kanhangad, Kasaragod and Uppala before entering Karnataka. NH 47 runs from Salem to Kanniyakumari via Coimbatore, Palakkad, Thrissur, Ernakulam, Kochi, Alapuzha, Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, and Nagercoil, connecting Kerala's political capital (Thiruvananthapuram) to its commercial capital (Kochi). Palakkad district is generally referred to as the Gateway of Kerala, due to the presence of the Palakkad Gap, in the Western Ghats, through which the northern (Malabar) and southern (Travancore) parts of Kerala are connected to the rest of India via road and rail. There is the state's largest checkpoint, Walayar, the border town between Kerala and Tamilnadu, through which a large amount of public and commercial transportation reaches the northern and central districts of Kerala.
The Department of Public Works is responsible for maintaining and expanding the state highways system and major district roads. The Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP), which includes the GIS-based Road Information and Management Project (RIMS), is responsible for maintaining and expanding the state highways in Kerala; it also oversees a few major district roads. Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10–11% every year, resulting in high traffic and pressure on the roads. Traffic density is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population. Kerala's annual total of road accidents is among the nation's highest. The accidents are mainly the result of the narrow roads and irresponsible driving. National Highways in Kerala are among the narrowest in the country and will remain so for the foreseeable future, as the state government has received an exemption that allows narrow national highways. In Kerala, highways are 45 meters wide. In other states National Highways are grade separated highways 60 meters wide with a minimum of four lanes, as well as 6 or 8 lane access-controlled expressways. National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has threatened the Kerala state government that it will give high priority to other states in highway development as political commitment to better highways has been lacking. As of 2013[update], the state had the highest road accident rate in the country, with most fatal accidents taking place along the state's National Highways.
The Indian Railways' Southern Railway line runs through the state connecting most of the major towns and cities except those in the highland districts of Idukki and Wayanad. The railway network in the state is controlled by two out of six divisions of the Southern Railway; Thiruvananthapuram Railway division and Palakkad Railway Division. Thiruvananthapuram Central (TVC) is the largest railway station in the state. Kerala's major railway stations are TVC, Ernakulam Junction (South) (ERS), Kozhikode (CLT), Shornur Junction (SRR), Palakkad Junction (PGT), Kollam Junction (QLN), Kannur (CAN), Thrissur Railway Station (TCR), Ernakulam Town (North)(ERN), Alappuzha railway station(ALLP), Kottayam (KTYM) Kayamkulam Junction (KYJ) and Chengannur (CNGR). Major railway transport between Beypore–Tirur began on 12 March 1861, from Shoranur–Cochin Harbour section in 1902, from Kollam–Sengottai on 1 July 1904, Kollam–Thiruvananthapuram on 4 January 1918, from Nilambur-Shoranur in 1927, from Ernakulam–Kottayam in 1956, from Kottayam–Kollam in 1958, from Thiruvananthapuram–Kanyakumari in 1979 and from the Thrissur-Guruvayur Section in 1994.
Kochi Metro is an under-construction metro system for the city of Kochi. The construction began in 2012 and the first phase is being set up at an estimated cost of ₹5181 crore (US$770 million).
Kerala has three international airports: Trivandrum International Airport, Cochin International Airport and Calicut International Airport. All civilian airports functioning in the state are international airports, a feature which is unique to Kerala. Upon completion of the Kannur International Airport, Kerala will join Tamil Nadu as the state with the most international airports. Unlike in other states where the capital city has the highest air traffic, in Kerala, air traffic is distributed evenly over Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode. Despite this, all these three airports are among the top 15 busiest airports in India.
Kollam Airport, established under the Madras Presidency and closed before the inauguration of Trivandrum International Airport in the capital, was the first airport in Kerala. Trivandrum International Airport, managed by the Airport Authority of India, is among the oldest existing airports in South India. Cochin International Airport is the busiest in the state and the seventh-busiest in the country. It was the first Indian airport to be incorporated as a public limited company; it was funded by nearly 10,000 non-resident Indians from 30 countries. Cochin Airport is the primary hub of Air India Express and the secondary hub of Air Asia India.
Other than civilian airports, Kochi has a naval airport named INS Garuda. Thiruvananthapuram airport shares civilian facilities with the Southern Air Command of the Indian Air Force. These facilities are used mostly by Central Government VIPs visiting Kerala.
Kerala has one major port, 17 minor ports and a few mini ports. The state has numerous backwaters, which are used for commercial inland navigation. Transport services are mainly provided by country craft and passenger vessels. There are 67 navigable rivers in the state while the total length of inland waterways is 1,687 kilometres (1,048 mi). The main constraints to the expansion of inland navigation are; lack of depth in waterways caused by silting, lack of maintenance of navigation systems and bank protection, accelerated growth of the water hyacinth, lack of modern inland craft terminals, and lack of a cargo handling system. A canal 205 kilometres (127 mi) long, National Waterway 3, runs between Kottapuram and Kollam, which is included in the East-Coast Canal.
|Source: 2001 & 2011 Censuses of India|
Kerala is home to 2.76% of India's population; with a density of 859 persons per km2, its land is nearly three times as densely settled as the Indian national average of 370 persons per km2. As of 2011[update], Thiruvananthapuram is the most populous city in Kerala. In the state, the rate of population growth is India's lowest, and the decadal growth of 4.9% in 2011 is less than one third of the all-India average of 17.64%. Kerala's population more than doubled between 1951 and 1991 by adding 15.6 million people to reach 29.1 million residents in 1991; the population stood at 33.3 million by 2011. Kerala's coastal regions are the most densely settled with population of 2022 persons per km2, 2.5 times the overall population density of the state, 859 persons per km2, leaving the eastern hills and mountains comparatively sparsely populated. Around 31.8 million Keralites are predominantly Malayali. The state's 321,000 indigenous tribal Adivasis, 1.10% of the population, are concentrated in the east.:10–12 Malayalam, one of the classical languages in India, is Kerala's official language. Tamil, Kannada, Tulu, Hindi, Bengali, Mahl and Adivasi (tribal) languages are also spoken. As of early 2013, there are close to 2.5 million (7.5% of the state population) migrant labourers in Kerala from other parts of India.
|List of Major cities in Kerala|
|Source: 2011 Census of India |
|List of major cities in Kerala as per Ministry of Urban Development publication, 2011.|
The democratic rise of the Communist Party of India in the state, culminating in the chief ministership of EMS Namboodiripad and his government, helped to distribute land and implement educational reforms. There is the tradition of matrilineal inheritance in Kerala, where the mother is the head of the household. As a result, women in Kerala have had a much higher standing and influence in the society. This was common among certain influential castes and is a factor in the value placed on daughters. Christian missionaries also influenced Malayali women in that they started schools for girls from poor families. Opportunities for women such as education and gainful employment often translate into a lower birth rate, which in turn, make education and employment more likely to be accessible and more beneficial for women. This creates an upward spiral for both the women and children of the community that is passed on to future generations. According to the Human Development Report of 1996, Kerala's Gender Development Index was 597; higher than any other state of India. Factors, such as high rates of female literacy, education, work participation and life expectancy, along with favourable sex ratio, contributed to it.
Kerala's sex ratio of 1.084 is higher than that of the rest of India and is the only state where women outnumber men.:2 While having the opportunities that education affords them, such as political participation, keeping up to date with current events, reading religious texts etc., these tools have still not translated into full, equal rights for the women of Kerala. There is a general attitude that women must be restricted for their own benefit. In the state, despite the social progress, gender still influences social mobility.
Human Development Index
As of 2014[update], Kerala has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.790 which comes under the "high" category and it is the highest in the country and a consumption-based HDI of 0.920, which is better than that of many developed countries. Comparatively higher spending by the government on primary level education, health care and the elimination of poverty from the 19th century onward has helped the state maintain an exceptionally high HDI; the report was prepared by the central government's Institute of Applied Manpower Research. However, the Human Development Report 2005, prepared by Centre for Development Studies envisages a virtuous phase of inclusive development for the state since the advancement in human development had already started aiding the economic development of the state. Kerala is also widely regarded as the cleanest and healthiest state in India.
According to the 2011 census, Kerala has the highest literacy rate (93.91) among Indian states. The life expectancy in Kerala is 74 years, among the highest in India as of 2011[update]. Kerala's rural poverty rate fell from 59% (1973–1974) to 12% (1999–2010); the overall (urban and rural) rate fell 47% between the 1970s and 2000s against the 29% fall in overall poverty rate in India. By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively. These changes stem largely from efforts begun in the late 19th century by the kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore to boost social welfare. This focus was maintained by Kerala's post-independence government.:48
Kerala has undergone a "demographic transition" characteristic of such developed nations as Canada, Japan, and Norway;.:1 as 11.2% of people are over the age of 60, and due to the low birthrate of 18 per 1,000. In 1991, Kerala's total fertility rate (TFR) was the lowest in India. Hindus had a TFR of 1.66, Christians; 1.78, and Muslims; 2.97. The state also is regarded as the "least corrupt Indian state" according to the surveys conducted by Transparency International (2005) and India Today (1997). Kerala has the lowest homicide rate among Indian states, with 1.1 per 100,000 in 2011. In respect of female empowerment, some negative factors such as higher suicide rate, lower share of earned income, child marriage, complaints of sexual harassment and limited freedom are reported.
In 2015, Kerala had the highest conviction rate of any state, over 77%. Kerala has the lowest proportion of homeless people in rural India - 0.04%, and the state is attempting to reach the goal of becoming the first "Zero Homeless State", in addition to its acclaimed "Zero landless project", with private organisations and the expatriate Malayali community funding projects for building homes for the homeless. The state was also among the lowest in the India State Hunger Index next only to Punjab. In 2015 Kerala became the first "complete digital state" by implementing e-governance initiatives.
Kerala, considered as being healthier than many states of the United States, is a pioneer in implementing the Universal health care programme. The sub-replacement fertility level and infant mortality rate are lower compared to those of other states; estimated from 12:49 to 14:5 deaths per 1,000 live births. However, Kerala's morbidity rate is higher than that of any other Indian state—118 (rural) and 88 (urban) per 1,000 people. The corresponding figures for all India were 55 and 54 per 1,000 respectively as of 2005[update].:5 Kerala's 13.3% prevalence of low birth weight is higher than that of many first world nations. Outbreaks of water-borne diseases such as diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis, and typhoid among the more than 50% of people who rely on 3 million water wells is an issue worsened by the lack of sewers.:5–7 According to a study commissioned by Lien Foundation, a Singapore-based philanthropic organisation, Kerala is considered to be the best place to die in India based on the state's provision of palliative care for patients with serious illnesses.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organisation designated Kerala the world's first "baby-friendly state" because of its effective promotion of breast-feeding over formulas. Over 95% of Keralite births are hospital delivered and the state also has the lowest Infant mortality rate in the country. The third National Family Health Survey ranks Kerala first in "Institutional Delivery" with 100% births in medical facilities. Ayurveda,:13 siddha, and endangered and endemic modes of traditional medicine, including kalari, marmachikitsa and vishavaidyam, are practised. Some occupational communities such as Kaniyar were known as native medicine men in relation to the practice of such streams of medical systems, apart from their traditional vocation. These propagate via gurukula discipleship,:5–6 and comprise a fusion of both medicinal and alternative treatments.:15
In 2014, Kerala became the first state in India to offer free cancer treatment to the poor, via a program called Sukrutham. People in Kerala experience elevated incidence of cancers, liver and kidney diseases. In April 2016, the Economic Times reported that 250,000 residents undergo treatment for cancer. It also reported that approximately 150 to 200 liver transplants are conducted in the region's hospitals annually. Approximately 42,000 cancer cases are reported in the region annually. This is believed to be an underestimate due as private hospitals may not be reporting their figures. Long waiting lists for kidney donations has stimulated illegal trade in human kidneys, and prompted the establishment of the Kidney Federation of India which aims to support financially disadvantaged patients.
In comparison with the rest of India, Kerala experiences relatively little sectarianism. According to 2011 Census of India figures, 54.73% of Kerala's residents are Hindus, 26.56% are Muslims, 18.38% are Christians, and the remaining 0.32% follow another or have no religious affiliation. Hindus constitute the majority in all districts except Malappuram, where they are outnumbered by Muslims.
The mythological legends regarding origin of Kerala are Hindu in nature. Kerala produced several saints and movements. Adi Shankara was a religious philosopher who contributed to Hinduism and propagated the philosophy of Advaita. He was instrumental in establishing four mathas at Sringeri, Dwarka, Puri and Jyotirmath. Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri was another religious figure who composed Narayaniyam, a collection of verses in praise of the Hindu God Krishna.
Islam arrived in Kerala through Arab traders in the seventh century CE. Muslims of Kerala, generally referred to as Mappila, mostly follow the Shafi'i Madh'hab under Sunni Islam. The major Muslim organisations are Sunni, Mujahid and Jama'at-e-Islami.
Ancient Christian tradition says that Christianity reached the shores of Kerala in AD 52 with the arrival of Thomas the Apostle, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. Saint Thomas Christians include Syro-Malabar Catholic, Syro-Malankara Catholic, Malankara Orthodox Syrian, Jacobite Syrian, Marthoma Syrian, the Syrian Anglicans in the CSI and several Pentecostal and evangelical denominations. The origin of the Latin Catholic Christians in Kerala is the result of the missionary endeavours of the Portuguese Padroado in the 16th century. Judaism reached Kerala in the 10th century BC during the time of King Solomon. They are called Cochin Jews or Malabar Jews and are the oldest group of Jews in India. There was a significant Jewish community which existed in Kerala until the 20th century, when most of them migrated to Israel. The Paradesi Synagogue at Kochi is the oldest synagogue in the Commonwealth. Jainism has a considerable following in the Wayanad district.
Buddhism was popular in the time of Ashoka the Great but vanished by the 12th century CE. Certain Hindu communities such as the Kshatriyas, Nairs, Tiyyas and the Muslims around North Malabar used to follow a traditional matrilineal system known as marumakkathayam, although this practice ended in the years after Indian independence. Other Muslims, Christians, and some Hindu castes such as the Namboothiris and the Ezhavas followed makkathayam, a patrilineal system. Owing to the former matrilineal system, women in Kerala enjoy a high social status. However, gender inequality among low caste men and women is reportedly higher compared to that in other castes. :1
The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts, including series expansion for trigonometric functions. Following the instructions of the Wood's despatch of 1854, both the princely states, Travancore and Cochin, launched mass education drives with support from agencies, mainly based on castes and communities and introduced a system of grant-in-aid to attract more private initiatives. The efforts by leaders, Vaikunda Swami, Narayana Guru and Ayyankali, towards aiding the socially discriminated castes in the state, with the help of community-based organisations like Nair Service Society, SNDP, Muslim Mahajana Sabha, Yoga Kshema Sabha (of Nambudiris) and congregations of Christian churches, led to the development of mass education in Kerala.
In 1991, Kerala became the first state in India to be recognised as a completely literate state, though the effective literacy rate at that time was only 90%. As of 2007[update], the net enrolment in elementary education was almost 100% and was almost balanced among sexes, social groups and regions, unlike other states in India. The state topped the Education Development Index (EDI) among 21 major states in India in the year 2006–2007. According to the first Economic Census, conducted in 1977, 99.7% of the villages in Kerala had a primary school within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi), 98.6% had a middle school within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) and 96.7% had a high school or higher secondary school within 5 kilometres (3.1 mi). According to the 2011 census, Kerala has 93.91% literacy compared to the national literacy rate of 74.04%. In January 2016, Kerala became the first Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its literacy programme Athulyam.
The educational system prevailing in the state's schools is made up of 10 years, which are streamlined into lower primary, upper primary and secondary school stages with a 4+3+3 pattern. After 10 years of schooling, students typically enroll in Higher Secondary Schooling in one of the three major streams—liberal arts, commerce or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students can enroll in general or professional under-graduate (UG) programmes. The majority of public schools are affiliated with the Kerala State Education Board. Other educational boards are the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), and the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). English is the language of instruction in most self-financing schools, while government and government-aided schools offer English or Malayalam. Though the cost of education is generally considered low in Kerala, according to the 61st round of the National Sample Survey (2004–2005), per capita spending on education by the rural households was reported to be ₹41 (61¢ US) for Kerala, more than twice the national average. The survey also revealed that the rural-urban difference in household expenditure on education was much less in Kerala than in the rest of India.
The culture of Kerala is composite and cosmopolitan in nature and it is an integral part of Indian culture. It is synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, defined by its antiquity and the organic continuity sustained by the Malayali people. It has been elaborated through centuries of contact with neighbouring and overseas cultures. However, the geographical insularity of Kerala from the rest of the country has resulted in the development of a distinctive lifestyle, art, architecture, language, literature and social institutions. Over 10,000 festivals are celebrated in the state every year. The Malayalam calendar, a solar calendar started from 825 CE in Kerala, finds common usage in planning agricultural and religious activities.
Many of the temples in Kerala hold festivals on specific days of the year. A common characteristic of these festivals is the hoisting of a holy flag which is brought down on the final day of the festival after immersing the deity. Some festivals include Poorams, the best known of these being the Thrissur Pooram. "Elephants, firework displays and huge crowds" are the major attractions of Thrissur Pooram. Other known festivals are Makaravilakku, Nenmara Vallangi Vela and Utsavam. Temples that can afford it will usually involve at least one richly caparisoned elephant as part of the festivities. The idol in the temple is taken out on a procession around the countryside atop this elephant. When the procession visits homes around the temple, people will usually present rice, coconuts, and other offerings to it. Processions often include traditional music such as Panchari melam or Panchavadyam.
Onam is a harvest festival celebrated by the people of Kerala and is a reminiscent of the state's agrarian past. It is also the State festival of Kerala with public holidays for four days from Onam Eve (Uthradom) to the fourth Onam Day. Onam falls in the Malayalam month of Chingam (August–September) and marks the commemoration of the Vamana avatara of Vishnu and the subsequent homecoming of King Mahabali. It is one of the festivals celebrated with cultural elements such as Vallam Kali, Pulikali, Pookkalam, Thumbi Thullal and Onavillu.
Kerala is home to a number of performance arts. These include five classical dance forms: Kathakali, Mohiniyattam, Koodiyattom, Thullal and Krishnanattam, which originated and developed in the temple theatres during the classical period under the patronage of royal houses. Kerala natanam, Thirayattam, Kaliyattam, Theyyam, Koothu and Padayani are other dance forms associated with the temple culture of the region. Some traditional dance forms such as Margamkali and Parichamuttukali are popular among the Syrian Christians and Chavittu nadakom is popular among the Latin Christians, while Oppana and Duffmuttu are popular among the Muslims of the state.
The development of classical music in Kerala is attributed to the contributions it received from the traditional performance arts associated with the temple culture of Kerala. The development of the indigenous classical music form, Sopana Sangeetham, illustrates the rich contribution that temple culture has made to the arts of Kerala. Carnatic music dominates Keralite traditional music. This was the result of Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma's popularisation of the genre in the 19th century. Raga-based renditions known as sopanam accompany kathakali performances. Melam; including the paandi and panchari variants, is a more percussive style of music: it is performed at Kshetram-centered festivals using the chenda. Panchavadyam is a form of percussion ensemble, in which artists use five types of percussion instrument. Kerala's visual arts range from traditional murals to the works of Raja Ravi Varma, the state's most renowned painter. Most of the castes and communities in Kerala have rich collections of folk songs and ballads associated with a variety of themes; Vadakkan Pattukal (Northern Ballads), Thekkan pattukal (Southern Ballads), Vanchi pattukal (Boat Songs), Mappila Pattukal (Muslim songs) and Pallipattukal (Church songs) are a few of them.
Malayalam films carved a niche for themselves in the Indian film industry with the presentation of social themes. Directors from Kerala, like Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Lal Jose, John Abraham, P. Padmarajan, G. Aravindan and Shaji N Karun have made a considerable contribution to the Indian parallel cinema. Kerala has also given birth to numerous actors, such as Satyan, Prem Nazir, Jayan, Adoor Bhasi, Bharath Gopi, Mammootty, Mohanlal, Suresh Gopi, Sreenivasan, Jayaram, Murali, Prithviraj, Dulquer Salman, Dileep, Oduvil Unnikrishnan, Thilakan, Jagathy Sreekumar, Nedumudi Venu, KPAC Lalitha, Fahad Fazil, Nivin Pauly, and Asif Ali. Late Malayalam actor Prem Nazir holds the world record for having acted as the protagonist of over 720 movies. Since the 1980s, actors Mammootty and Mohanlal have dominated the movie industry; Mammootty has won three National Awards for best actor while Mohanlal has two to his credit. Malayalam Cinema has produced a few more notable personalities such as K.J. Yesudas, K.S. Chitra, Vayalar Rama Varma, M.T. Vasudevan Nair and O.N.V. Kurup, the last two mentioned being recipients of Jnanpith award, the highest literary award in India.
Malayalam literature starts from the late medieval period and includes such notable writers as the 14th-century Niranam poets (Madhava Panikkar, Sankara Panikkar and Rama Panikkar), and the 17th-century poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan, whose works mark the dawn of both the modern Malayalam language and its poetry. Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar and Kerala Varma Valiakoi Thampuran are noted for their contribution to Malayalam prose. The "triumvirate of poets" (Kavithrayam): Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, are recognised for moving Keralite poetry away from archaic sophistry and metaphysics, and towards a more lyrical mode. In the second half of the 20th century, Jnanpith winning poets and writers like G. Sankara Kurup, S. K. Pottekkatt, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, M. T. Vasudevan Nair and O. N. V. Kurup had made valuable contributions to the modern Malayalam literature. Later, writers like O. V. Vijayan, Kamaladas, M. Mukundan, Arundhati Roy, Vaikom Muhammed Basheer, have gained international recognition.
Kerala cuisine has a multitude of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes prepared using fish, poultry, and meat. Culinary spices have been cultivated in Kerala for millennia and they are characteristic of its cuisine. Rice is a dominant staple that is eaten at all times of day. A majority of the breakfast foods in Kerala are made out of rice, in one form or the other (idli, puttu, appam, or idiyappam), tapioca preparations, or pulse-based vada. These may be accompanied by chutney, kadala, payasam, payar pappadam, appam, chicken curry, beef fry, egg masala and fish curry. Lunch dishes include rice and curry along with rasam, pulisherry and sambar. Sadhya is a vegetarian meal, which is served on a banana leaf and followed with a cup of payasam. Popular snacks include banana chips, yam crisps, tapioca chips, unniyappam and kuzhalappam. Seafood specialties include karimeen, prawns, shrimp and other crustacean dishes. Kerala also has large variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian achar (pickles) ranging from manga (mango), white lemon, fish, beef and seafood pickles.
Elephants have been an integral part of the culture of the state. Kerala is home to the largest domesticated population of elephants in India—about 700 Indian elephants, owned by temples as well as individuals. These elephants are mainly employed for the processions and displays associated with festivals celebrated all around the state. More than 10,000 festivals are celebrated in the state annually and some animal lovers have sometimes raised concerns regarding the overwork of domesticated elephants during them. In Malayalam literature, elephants are referred to as the 'sons of the sahya. The elephant is the state animal of Kerala and is featured on the emblem of the Government of Kerala.
The media, telecommunications, broadcasting and cable services are regulated by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI). The National Family Health Survey – 3, conducted in 2007, ranked Kerala as the state with the highest media exposure in India. Dozens of newspapers are published in Kerala, in nine major languages, but principally Malayalam and English. The most widely circulated Malayalam-language newspapers are Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Mangalam, Kerala Kaumudi, Chandrika, Thejas, Janayugam, Janmabhumi, Deepika and Siraj Daily. Major Malayalam periodicals include Mathrubhumi, India Today Malayalam, Madhyamam Weekly, Grihalakshmi, Vanitha, Dhanam, Chithrabhumi, and Bhashaposhini. The Hindu is the most read English language newspaper in the state, followed by The New Indian Express. Other dailies include Deccan Chronicle, The Times of India, DNA, The Economic Times, and The Financial Express.
Doordarshan is the state-owned television broadcaster. Multi system operators provide a mix of Malayalam, English and international channels via cable television. Some of the popular Malayalam television channels are Asianet, Surya TV, Kiran TV, Mazhavil Manorama, Manorama News, Indiavision, Kairali TV, Kairali WE, Kairali People, Yes Indiavision Kappa TV, Asianet News, Asianet Plus, Asianet Movies, Amrita TV, Reporter, Jaihind, Jeevan TV, Mathrubhumi News, Kaumudi, Shalom TV, and Media One TV. Television serials, reality shows and the Internet have become major sources of entertainment and information for the people of Kerala. A Malayalam version of Google News was launched in September 2008. A sizeable "people's science" movement has taken root in the state, and such activities as writers' cooperatives are becoming increasingly common.:2 BSNL, Reliance Infocomm, Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Tata Docomo and Aircel are the major cell phone service providers. Broadband Internet services are widely available throughout the state; some of the major ISPs are BSNL, Asianet Satellite communications, Reliance Communications, Airtel,Idea, MTS and VSNL. According to a TRAI report, as of January 2012 the total number of wireless phone subscribers in Kerala is about 34.3 million and the wireline subscriber base is at 3.2 million, accounting for the telephone density of 107.77. Unlike in many other states, the urban-rural divide is not visible in Kerala with respect to mobile phone penetration.
By the 21st century, almost all of the native sports and games from Kerala have either disappeared or become just an art form performed during local festivals; including Poorakkali, Padayani, Thalappandukali, Onathallu, Parichamuttukali, Velakali, and Kilithattukali. However, Kalaripayattu, regarded as "the mother of all martial arts in the world", is an exception and is practised as the indigenous martial sport. Another traditional sport of Kerala is the boat race, especially the race of Snake boats.
Cricket and football became popular in the state; both were introduced in Malabar during the British colonial period in the 19th century. Cricketers, like Tinu Yohannan, Abey Kuruvilla, Sreesanth and Sanju Samson, found places in the national cricket team. However, the Kerala cricket team has never won or performed well at the Ranji Trophy. A cricket club from Kerala, the Kochi Tuskers, played in the Indian Premier League's fourth season. However, the team was disbanded after the season because of conflicts of interest among its franchises. Football is one of the most widely played and watched sports with huge support for club and district level matches. In the Indian Super League the official team of Kerala is the Kerala Blasters. Kozhikode in Kerala hosts the Sait Nagjee Football Tournament. Kerala is one of the major footballing states in India along with West Bengal and Goa and has produced national players like I. M. Vijayan, C. V. Pappachan, V. P. Sathyan, Jo Paul Ancheri, and Pappachen Pradeep. The Kerala state football team has won the Santhosh Trophy five times; in 1973, 1992, 1993, 2001 and 2004. They were also the runners-up eight times.
Among the prominent athletes hailing from the state are P. T. Usha, Shiny Wilson and M.D. Valsamma, all three of whom are recipients of the Padma Shri as well as Arjuna Award, while K. M. Beenamol and Anju Bobby George are Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and Arjuna Award winners. T. C. Yohannan, Suresh Babu, Sinimol Paulose, Angel Mary Joseph, Mercy Kuttan, K. Saramma, K. C. Rosakutty and Padmini Selvan are the other Arjuna Award winners from Kerala. Volleyball is another popular sport and is often played on makeshift courts on sandy beaches along the coast. Jimmy George was a notable Indian volleyball player, rated in his prime as among the world's ten best players. Other popular sports include badminton, basketball and kabaddi.
Kerala's culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demographics, have made the state one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. In 2012, National Geographic's Traveller magazine named Kerala as one of the "ten paradises of the world" and "50 must see destinations of a lifetime". Travel and Leisure also described Kerala as "One of the 100 great trips for the 21st century". In 2012, it overtook the Taj Mahal to be the number one travel destination in Google's search trends for India. Kerala's beaches, backwaters, lakes, mountain ranges, waterfalls, ancient ports, palaces, religious institutions and wildlife sanctuaries are major attractions for both domestic and international tourists. The city of Kochi ranks first in the total number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala. Until the early 1980s, Kerala was a relatively unknown destination compared to other states in the country. In 1986 the government of Kerala declared tourism an important industry and it was the first state in India to do so. Marketing campaigns launched by the Kerala Tourism Development Corporation, the government agency that oversees the tourism prospects of the state, resulted in the growth of the tourism industry. Many advertisements branded Kerala with the tagline Kerala, God's Own Country. Kerala tourism is a global brand and regarded as one of the destinations with highest recall. In 2006, Kerala attracted 8.5 million tourists, an increase of 23.68% over the previous year, making the state one of the fastest-growing popular destinations in the world. In 2011, tourist inflow to Kerala crossed the 10-million mark.
Ayurvedic tourism has become very popular since the 1990s, and private agencies have played a notable role in tandem with the initiatives of the Tourism Department. Kerala is known for its ecotourism initiatives which include mountaineering, trekking and bird-watching programmes in the Western Ghats as the major activities. As of 2005[update], the state's tourism industry was a major contributor to the state's economy, growing at the rate of 13.31%. The revenue from tourism increased five-fold between 2001 and 2011 and crossed the ₹ 190 billion mark in 2011. Moreover, the industry provides employment to approximately 1.2 million people.
Asia's largest, and the world's third-largest, Naval Academy-Ezhimala Naval Academy-at Kannur is in Kerala. Idukki arch dam, the world's second arch dam, and Asia's first, is in Kerala. The major beaches are at Kovalam, Varkala, Fort Kochi, Cherai, Payyambalam, Kappad, Muzhappilangad (South India's only drive-in beach), Bekal, and Gavi. Popular hill stations are at Munnar, Wayanad, Wagamon, Peermade, Paithalmala, Nelliampathi and Ponmudi. Munnar is 4,500 feet above sea level and is known for tea plantations, and a variety of flora and fauna. Kerala's ecotourism destinations include 12 wildlife sanctuaries and two national parks: Periyar Tiger Reserve, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Muthanga Wildlife Sanctuary, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, and Silent Valley National Park are the most popular among them. The Kerala backwaters are an extensive network of interlocking rivers (41 west-flowing rivers), lakes, and canals that centre around Alleppey, Kumarakom and Punnamada (where the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race is held in August). Padmanabhapuram Palace and the Mattancherry Palace are two notable heritage sites.
- "Kerala Population Census data 2011". Census 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- "Sathasivam sworn in as Kerala Governor". The Hindu. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- Menon, A. Sreedhara (2007-01-01). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. p. 55. ISBN 9788126415786.
- Sreelakshmi Suresh. "KERALA ETYMOLOGY :: STATE OF KERALA :: The Ultimate Destination of Kerala Information". stateofkerala.in. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- John R. Marr (1985). The Eight Anthologies: A Study in Early Tamil Literature. Institute of Asian Studies. p. 263.
- A. Sreedhara Menon (2008). Cultural Heritage of Kerala. D C Books. pp. 13–15. ISBN 978-81-264-1903-6. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Kerala." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 December 2011.
- A. Sreedhara Menon (1987). Political History of Modern Kerala. D C Books. pp. 13–23. ISBN 978-81-264-2156-5. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- Nicasio Silverio Sainz (1972). Cuba y la Casa de Austria. Ediciones Universal. p. 120. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- Robert Caldwell (1 December 1998). A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Or South-Indian Family of Languages. Asian Educational Services. p. 92. ISBN 978-81-206-0117-8. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- S. C. Bhatt, Gopal K. Bhargava (2006) "Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: Volume 14.", p.18
- Aiya VN (1906). The Travancore State Manual. Travancore Government Press. pp. 210–212. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- M. T. Narayanan (1 January 2003). Agrarian Relations in Late Medieval Malabar. Northern Book Centre. pp. 16–18. ISBN 978-81-7211-135-9. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- P. 204 Ancient Indian History By Madhavan Arjunan Pillai
- Robin Rinehart (2004). Contemporary Hinduism: Ritual, Culture, and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-57607-905-8. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Goldberg, Ellen (2002). The Lord who is Half Woman: Ardhanārīśvara in Indian and Feminist Perspective. SUNY Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7914-5325-4. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Kemmerer, Lisa (2011). Animals and World Religions. Oxford University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-19-991255-1. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Dalal, Roshen (2011). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books India. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Ragozin, Zenaide A. (2005). Vedic India As Embodied Principally in the Rig-veda. Kessinger Publishing. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-4179-4463-7. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "Unlocking the secrets of history". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 6 December 2004. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Subodh Kapoor (1 July 2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia. Cosmo Publications. p. 2184. ISBN 978-81-7755-257-7. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Travel and Tourism". kerala.gov.in. Government of Kerala. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Udai Prakash Arora; A. K. Singh (1 January 1999). Currents in Indian History, Art, and Archaeology. Anamika Publishers & Distributors. p. 116. ISBN 978-81-86565-44-5. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- Udai Prakash Arora; A. K. Singh (1 January 1999). Currents in Indian History, Art, and Archaeology. Anamika Publishers & Distributors. pp. 118, 123. ISBN 978-81-86565-44-5. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- Udai Prakash Arora; A. K. Singh (1 January 1999). Currents in Indian History, Art, and Archaeology. Anamika Publishers & Distributors. p. 123. ISBN 978-81-86565-44-5. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- "Symbols akin to Indus valley culture discovered in Kerala". The Hindu. 29 September 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Pradeep Kumar, Kaavya (28 January 2014). "Of Kerala, Egypt, and the Spice link". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- Striving for sustainability, environmental stress and democratic initiatives in Kerala, p. 79; ISBN 81-8069-294-9, Srikumar Chattopadhyay, Richard W. Franke; Year: 2006.
- A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Vincent A. Smith; A. V. Williams Jackson (30 November 2008). History of India, in Nine Volumes: Vol. II – From the Sixth Century BCE to the Mohammedan Conquest, Including the Invasion of Alexander the Great. Cosimo, Inc. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-60520-492-5. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- The Cambridge Shorter History of India. CUP Archive. p. 193. GGKEY:2W0QHXZ7K40. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Bhanwar Lal Dwivedi (1 January 1994). Evolution of Education Thought in India. Northern Book Centre. p. 164. ISBN 978-81-7211-059-8. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Kanakasabhai, V. (1997). The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0150-5. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 385. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- James Oliver Thomson (1948). History of ancient geography – Google Books. Biblo & Tannen Publishers, 1948. ISBN 978-0-8196-0143-8. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- S. S. Shashi (1996). Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Anmol Publications. p. 1207. ISBN 978-81-7041-859-7. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Murkot Ramunny (1 January 1993). Ezhimala: The Abode of the Naval Academy. Northern Book Centre. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7211-052-9. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. Ed. by Edward Balfour (1871), Second Edition. Volume 2. p. 584.
- Joseph Minattur. "Malaya: What's in the name" (PDF). siamese-heritage.org. p. 1. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- K. K. Kusuman (1987). A History of Trade & Commerce in Travancore. Mittal Publications. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-81-7099-026-0. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- According to Pliny the Elder, goods from India were sold in the Empire at 100 times their original purchase price. See 
- Abraham Eraly (1 December 2011). The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books India. pp. 246–. ISBN 978-0-670-08478-4. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Iyengar PTS (2001). History Of The Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 A.D. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0145-9. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
- Iyengar PTS (2001). History Of The Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600 A.D. Asian Educational Services. pp. 192–195. ISBN 81-206-0145-9. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
- The Jews of India: A Story of Three Communities by Orpa Slapak. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. 2003. p. 27. ISBN 965-278-179-7.
- David D'Beth Hillel (1832). The Travels of Rabbi David D'Beth Hillel: From Jerusalem, Through Arabia, Koordistan, Part of Persia, and India to Madras. author. p. 135.
- The Jews in India and the Far East. Greenwood Press. 1976. pp. 24–26.
- Rolland E. Miller (1993). Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Perspectives and Encounters. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. p. 50. ISBN 978-81-208-1158-4.
- The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-8028-2417-2.
- Geoffrey Wainwright (2006). The Oxford History Of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press. p. 666. ISBN 978-0-19-513886-3. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- * Bindu Malieckal (2005) Muslims, Matriliny, and A Midsummer Night's Dream: European Encounters with the Mappilas of Malabar, India; The Muslim World Volume 95 Issue 2
- Milton J, Skeat WW, Pollard AW, Brown L (31 August 1982). The Indian Christians of St Thomas. Cambridge University Press. p. 171. ISBN 0-521-21258-8.
- Susan Bayly (2004). Saints, Goddesses and Kings. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-89103-5. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Jonathan Goldstein (1999). The Jews of China. M.E. Sharpe. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-7656-0104-9. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Nathan Katz (2000). Who Are the Jews of India?. University of California Press. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-520-21323-4. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- K. Balachandran Nayar (1974). In quest of Kerala. Accent Publications. p. 86. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. pp. 123–131. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- R. E. Asher; T. C. Kumari (1997). Malayalam. Psychology Press. pp. 24–27. ISBN 978-0-415-02242-2.
- "The Buddhist History of Kerala". Kerala.cc. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. p. 138. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Educational Britannica Educational (15 August 2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- "The Territories and States of India" (PDF). Europa. 2002. pp. 144–146. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- Corn, Charles; Glasserman, Debbie (March 1999). The Scents of Eden: A History of the Spice Trade. Kodansha America. ISBN 1-56836-249-8.
- Ravindran PN (2000). Black Pepper: Piper Nigrum. CRC Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-90-5702-453-5. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Philip D. Curtin (25 May 1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-521-26931-5.
- J. L. Mehta (1 January 2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 324–327. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- K. K. N. Kurup (1 January 1997). India's Naval Traditions: The Role of Kunhali Marakkars. Northern Book Centre. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-81-7211-083-3. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- South Asia 2006. Taylor & Francis. 1 December 2005. p. 289. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Murkot Ramunny (1 January 1993). Ezhimala: The Abode of the Naval Academy. Northern Book Centre. pp. 57–70. ISBN 978-81-7211-052-9. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Anjana Singh (30 April 2010). Fort Kochi in Kerala, 1750–1830: The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu. BRILL. pp. 22–52. ISBN 978-90-04-16816-9. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- S. Krishna Iyer (1995). Travancore Dutch relations, 1729–1741. CBH Publications. p. 49. ISBN 978-81-85381-42-8. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Mark de Lannoy (1997). The Kulasekhara Perumals of Travancore: history and state formation in Travancore from 1671 to 1758. Leiden University. p. 190. ISBN 978-90-73782-92-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- A. Sreedhara Menon (1987). Political History of Modern Kerala. D C Books. p. 140. ISBN 978-81-264-2156-5. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- Raghunath Rai. History. FK Publications. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-81-87139-69-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- British Museum; Anna Libera Dallapiccola (22 June 2010). South Indian Paintings: A Catalogue of the British Museum Collection. Mapin Publishing Pvt Ltd. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-0-7141-2424-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe; Thorpe Edgar. The Pearson CSAT Manual 2011. Pearson Education India. p. 99. ISBN 978-81-317-5830-4. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- The Edinburgh Gazetteer. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green. 1827. pp. 63–. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Dharma Kumar (1965). Land and Caste in South India: Agricultural Labor in the Madras Presidency During the Nineteenth Century. CUP Archive. pp. 87–. GGKEY:T72DPF9AZDK. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- K.P. Ittaman (1 June 2003). History of Mughal Architecture Volume Ii. Abhinav Publications. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-81-7017-034-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Superintendent of Government Printing (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India (Provincial Series): Madras. Calcutta: Government of India. p. 22. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Kakkadan Nandanath Raj; Michael Tharakan; Rural Employment Policy Research Programme (1981). Agrarian reform in Kerala and its impact on the rural economy: a preliminary assessment. International Labour Office. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- M. Naeem Qureshi (1999). Pan-Islam in British Indian Politics: A Study of the Khilafat Movement, 1918–1924. BRILL. pp. 445–447. ISBN 90-04-11371-1.
- Bardwell L. Smith (1976). Religion and Social Conflict in South Asia. BRILL. pp. 35–42. ISBN 978-90-04-04510-1. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Gopa Sabharwal (2007). India Since 1947: The Independent Years. Penguin Books India. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-0-14-310274-8. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Tmh. General Knowledge Digest 2010. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-07-069939-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Sarina Singh; Amy Karafin; Anirban Mahapatra (1 September 2009). South India. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74179-155-6. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- K.G. Kumar (12 April 2007). "50 years of development". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Manali Desai (27 November 2006). State Formation and Radical Democracy in India. Taylor & Francis. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-203-96774-4. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- Madan Gopal Chitkara; Baṃśī Rāma Śarmā (1 January 1997). Indian Republic: Issues and Perspective. APH Publishing. pp. 134–. ISBN 978-81-7024-836-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "PHYSICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF WOOD OF SOME LESS-KNOWN TREE SPECIES OF KERALA" (PDF). KERALA FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE. Government of Kerala. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Marine Fisheries". fisheries.kerala.gov.in. Department of Fisheries, Government of Kerala. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- V. Balakrishnan Nair (1 January 1994). Social Development and Demographic Changes in South India: Focus on Kerala. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 15. ISBN 978-81-85880-50-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Srikumar Chattopadhyay; Srikumar Chattopadhyay And Richard W. Franke (1 January 2006). Striving for Sustainability: Environmental Stress and Democratic Initiatives in Kerala. Concept Publishing Company. p. 110. ISBN 978-81-8069-294-9. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Geological Survey Water-supply Paper. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1961. p. 4. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Pradeep Sharma; Y. Dharnai Kumari; Tirunagaram Lakshmamma (1 January 2008). Status Of Women And Family Planning. Discovery Publishing House. p. 217. ISBN 978-81-8356-326-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Murdoch Books Pty Limited; Murdoch Books Test Kitchen (1 July 2010). India. Murdoch Books. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-74196-438-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- S. N. Sadasivan (2003). River Disputes in India: Kerala Rivers Under Siege. Mittal Publications. p. 223. ISBN 978-81-7099-913-3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Pratiyogita Darpan (September 2006). Pratiyogita Darpan. Pratiyogita Darpan. p. 72. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Motilal (UK) Books of India (1 February 2008). Tourist Guide Kerala. Sura Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-81-7478-164-2. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Chandran Nair, Dr.S.Sathis. "INDIA - SILENT VALLEY RAINFOREST UNDER THREAT ONCE MORE". rainforestinfo.org.au. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- M.R. Biju (1 January 2006). Sustainable Dimensions Of Tourism Management. Mittal Publications. p. 63. ISBN 978-81-8324-129-8. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Hussain. Geography Of India For Civil Ser Exam. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-07-066772-3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Hunter, William Wilson; James Sutherland Cotton; Richard Burn; William Stevenson Meyer; Great Britain India Office (1909). The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 11. Clarendon Press. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- Srikumar Chattopadhyay; Srikumar Chattopadhyay And Richard W. Franke (1 January 2006). Striving for Sustainability: Environmental Stress and Democratic Initiatives in Kerala. Concept Publishing Company. p. 33. ISBN 978-81-8069-294-9. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Danny Moss (1 September 2010). Public Relations Cases: International Perspectives. Taylor & Francis. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-415-77336-2. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Edgar Thorpe (2012). The Pearson CSAT Manual 2012. Pearson Education India. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-317-6734-4. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Majid Husain. Understanding: Geographical: Map Entries: for Civil Services Examinations: Second Edition. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-07-070288-2. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI—Ministry of Shipping) (2005). "Introduction to Inland Water Transport". IWAI (Ministry of Shipping). Retrieved 19 January 2006.[dead link]
- India., Planning Commission (2008). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. p. 224. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7.
- Padmalal D, Maya K, Sreebha S & Sreeja R, 2007, Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest coast of India, Environmental Geology 54(4), 879–889. springerlink.com. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- M.K. Jha (24 November 2010). Natural and Anthropogenic Disasters: Vulnerability, Preparedness and Mitigation. Springer. p. 81. ISBN 978-90-481-2497-8. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Chacko, T.; Renuka, G. (2002). "Temperature mapping, thermal diffusivity and subsoil heat flux at Kariavattom, Kerala". Proc Indian Acad Sci (Earth Planet Sci).
- Planning Commission, India (2007). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. p. 223. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- RK Jain. Geography 10. Ratna Sagar. p. 110. ISBN 978-81-8332-081-8. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Together with Social Science Term II. Rachna Sagar. p. 112. ISBN 978-81-8137-399-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe; Thorpe Edgar. The Pearson CSAT Manual 2011. Pearson Education India. p. 7. ISBN 978-81-317-5830-4. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- N.N. Kher; Jaideep Aggarwal. A Text Book of Social Sciences. Pitambar Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 978-81-209-1466-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Sarina Singh; Amy Karafin; Anirban Mahapatra (1 September 2009). South India. Lonely Planet. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-74179-155-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- S.V. Jeevananda Reddy. Climate Change: Myths and Realities. Jeevananda Reddy. p. 71. GGKEY:WDFHBL1XHK3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Rao (2008). Agricultural Meteorology. PHI Learning. pp. 173–174. ISBN 978-81-203-3338-3. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Hydromet Division Updated/Real Time Maps". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Brenkert, A.; Malone, E. (2003). "Vulnerability and resilience of India and Indian states to climate change: a first-order approximation". Joint Global Change Research Institute.
- Sudha, T. M. "Opportunities in participatory planning to Evolve a Landuse Policy for Western Ghats Region in Kerala" (PDF). Department of Town and Country Planning, Kerala. p. 14. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "Kerala Symbols". Public Relations Dept, Kerala. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "KarimeenVarsham". web.archive.org. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "History". Kerala forests and wildlife department. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- Sreedharan TP (2004). "Biological Diversity of Kerala: A survey of Kalliasseri panchayat, Kannur district" (PDF). Centre for Development Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- Jayarajan M (2004). "Sacred Groves of North Malabar" (PDF). Centre for Development Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- Julian Evans (13 June 2008). The Forests Handbook, Applying Forest Science for Sustainable Management. John Wiley & Sons. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-470-75683-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- R. P. Singh; Zubairul Islam. Environmental Studies. Concept Publishing Company. p. 172. ISBN 978-81-8069-774-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Alexandra Anna Enrica van der Geer (2008). Animals in Stone: Indian Mammals Sculptured Through Time. BRILL. p. 7. ISBN 978-90-04-16819-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- World's oldest teak trees dying in Kerala
- "About Kerala". Government of Kerala. Archived from the original on 18 December 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "Local Self Governance in Kerala". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- Dezan Shira; Associates. (30 April 2012). Doing Business in India. Springer. pp. 313–. ISBN 978-3-642-27618-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- D Banerjea; N. R. Madhava Menon (2002). Criminal Justice India Series, Vol. 20. Allied Publishers. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-81-7764-871-3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project". Local Self Government Department.
- "CITY INFORMATION". Cochin International Airport. Government of Kerala. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Cities best to earn a living are not the best to live: Survey". The Times of India. 26 November 2007.
- "Protest against frequent strikes". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 5 July 2005. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- Trade Associations in Kerala: Their functioning and implications, S. Muralidharan, Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, 2004
- "Kerala Government - Legislature". Government of kerala. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "History of Kerala Legislature". Government of Kerala. Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "Our Parliament". Parliamentofindia.nic.in. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "Responsibilities". Kerala Rajbhavan. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "Legislative Assembly of Kerala: Official Website". niyamasabha.org. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- Shyam Nandan Chaudhary (2009). Tribal Development Since Independence. Concept Publishing Company. p. 235. ISBN 978-81-8069-622-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "History of Judiciary". All-India Judges Association. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- U S Congress; Congress (U.S.) (28 October 2010). Congressional Record, V. 153, Pt. 1, January 4, 2007 to January 17, 2007. Government Printing Office. p. 1198. ISBN 978-0-16-086824-5. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "High Court of Kerala Profile". High Court of Kerala. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- D. Banerjea (2002). Criminal Justice India Series, Vol. 21. Allied Publishers. p. 80. ISBN 978-81-7764-872-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Sharma; Sharma B.k. (1 August 2007). Intro. to the Constitution of India, 4/e. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 261. ISBN 978-81-203-3246-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Mariamma Sanu George. "An Introduction to local self governments in Kerala" (PDF). SDC CAPDECK. pp. 17–20. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- S M Vijayanand (April 2009). "Kerala - A Case Study of Classical Democratic Decentralisation" (PDF). Kerala Institute of Local Administration. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Rajesh Tandon; Ranjita Mohanty (29 March 2006). Participatory Citizenship: Identity, Exclusion, Inclusion. SAGE. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-7619-3467-7. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- S M Vijayanand (April 2009). "Kerala - A Case Study of Classical Democratic Decentralisation" (PDF). Kerala Institute of Local Administration. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- T. M. Thomas Isaac; Richard W. Franke (1 January 2002). Local Democracy and Development: The Kerala People's Campaign for Decentralized Planning. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-7425-1607-6.
- Mohindra KS (2003). "A report on women Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in Kerala state, India: a public health perspective". Université de Montréal Department de medicine social et prévention.
- "Economy - Kerala - States and Union Territories - Know India: National Portal of India". National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- "Provisional results of economic census 2005" (PDF). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- Varma MS (4 April 2005). "Nap on HDI scores may land Kerala in an equilibrium trap". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- Tharamangalam J (2005). "The Perils of Social Development without Economic Growth: The Development Debacle of Kerala, India" (PDF). Political Economy for Environmental Planners. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- K.P. Kannan; K.S. Hari (2002). "Kerala's Gulf connection: Emigration, remittances and their macroeconomic impact 1972–2000". Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Govind, Biju. "GCC residency cap may force lakhs to return". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Remittances: Kerala drives dollar flows to India". Yahoo! Finance. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- "NRI deposits in Kerala banks cross Rs 1 lakh crore". Times of India. 22 June 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- India. Planning Commission (2008). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. p. 396. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7.
- "Migrant worker population in Kerala touches 2.5 m". Business Line. 16 February 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "ECONOMIC SURVEY 2011–12 Union Budget" (PDF). Government of India. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "State Profile of Kerala 2010–11" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- Balachandran PG (2004). "Constraints on Diffusion and Adoption of Agro-mechanical Technology in Rice Cultivation in Kerala" (PDF). Centre for Development Studies. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- Government of Kerala (2005c). "Kerala at a Glance". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 22 January 2006.
- Joy CV (2004). "Small Coffee Growers of Sulthan Bathery, Wayanad" (PDF). Centre for Development Studies. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- S. Rajitha Kumar; University of Kerala (1 July 2007). Traditional Industries of India in the Globalised World. University of Kerala. p. 223. ISBN 978-81-7708-143-5.
- "Indian Coir Industry". Indian Mirror. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- SIDBI Report on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Sector, 2010. Small Industries Development Bank of India. 2010.
- N. Rajeevan (March 2012). "A Study on the Position of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kerala vis a vis the National Scenario". International Journal of Research in Commerce, Economics and Management. 2 (3).
- "Functions, KSIDC, Thiruvananthapuram". Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- "State/Union Territory-Wise Number of Branches of Scheduled Commercial Banks and Average Population Per Bank Branch" (PDF). Reserve Bank of India. March 2002. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- "Now, you can bank on every village in Kerala". The Times of India. 1 October 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Kumar KG (8 October 2007). "Jobless no more?". Business Line. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
A study by K.C. Zacharia and S. Irudaya Rajan, two economists at the Centre for Development Studies (CDS), unemployment in Kerala has dropped from 19.1[%] in 2003 to 9.4[%] in 2007.
- Nair NG. Nair PR, Shaji H, eds. Measurement of Employment, Unemployment, and Underemployment (PDF). Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development. Thiruvananthapuram: Centre for Development Studies. ISBN 81-87621-75-3. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
- Mary, John (12 May 2008). "Men (Not) At Work". Outlook. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Deaton A (22 August 2003). "Regional poverty estimates for India, 1999–2000" (PDF): 6. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- "Official site of Kerala IT". Department of IT, Government of Kerala. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- "Technopark aims to be among top 5 IT investment locations". Economic Times. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- PI, Rajeev (3 March 2007). "God's own country to house largest IT park". The Indian Express. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- "Symbols akin to Indus valley culture discovered in Kerala". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 September 2009.
- "Infopark's IT exports climb 53% in FY14". Times of India. Kochi, India. 2014-11-14.
- "Shopping festival begins". The Hindu. 2 December 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- "Budget at a Glance" (PDF). kerala.gov.in. Government of Kerala. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
- "Memoranda from States: Kerala" (PDF). fincomindia.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- Kerala: Hartals Own Country? 6 July 2008
- "India Today On Cm". Keralacm.gov.in. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- "Modi to address heads of civic bodies on urban revamp". The Hindu. 20 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- R. Ramabhadran, Pillai. "AMRUT to roll out on a smaller scale". The Hindu (12 November 2015). Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- B.R. Sinha (1 January 2003). Encyclopaedia Of Professional Education (10 Vol.). Sarup & Sons. pp. 204–205. ISBN 978-81-7625-410-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Babu P. Remesh (2010). Dynamics of Rural Labour: A Study of Small Holding Rubber Tappers in Kerala. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-81-8069-660-2. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Government of India Planning Commission (1 January 2008). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. pp. 66–. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Planning Commission, India (2007). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. p. 66. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Limca Book of Records. Bisleri Beverages Limited. 2001. p. 97. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- South Asia 2006. Taylor & Francis. 1 December 2005. p. 291. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Economic Affairs. H. Roy. 1998. p. 47. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Srikumar Chattopadhyay; Srikumar Chattopadhyay And Richard W. Franke (1 January 2006). Striving for Sustainability: Environmental Stress and Democratic Initiatives in Kerala. Concept Publishing Company. p. 74. ISBN 978-81-8069-294-9. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- James Newton. Jay Rai's Kitchen - Keralan Cuisine. Springwood emedia. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-1-4761-2308-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Rajan, S. & B.L.Markose; Baby Lissy Markose (1 January 2007). Propagation of Horticultural Crops: Vol.06. Horticulture Science Series. New India Publishing. pp. 212–. ISBN 978-81-89422-48-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Pradhan (2009). Retailing Management 3E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-0-07-015256-4. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- T. Pradeepkumar; Kumar, Pradeep (1 January 2008). Management of Horticultural Crops: Vol.11 Horticulture Science Series: In 2 Parts. New India Publishing. pp. 509–. ISBN 978-81-89422-49-3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Filippo Osella; Caroline Osella (20 December 2000). Social Mobility In Kerala: Modernity and Identity in Conflict. Pluto Press. pp. 235–. ISBN 978-0-7453-1693-2. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Cashew sector in a tailspin". The Hindu. Retrieved 2016-06-24.
- C.K. Varshney; J. Rzóska (30 June 1976). Aquatic Weeds in South East Asia. Springer. pp. 100–. ISBN 978-90-6193-556-8. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Aline Dobbie (1 October 2006). India the Elephants Blessing. Melrose Press. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-1-905226-85-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Government of India Planning Commission (1 January 2008). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. pp. 420–. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Nripendra N Sarma (2003). Consumer Cooperatives and Rural Marketing. Mittal Publications. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-81-7099-876-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Hemant Roy Sri; Shri Hemant Roy. Comprehensive Mcqs In Biology. Golden Bells. pp. 696–. ISBN 978-81-7968-056-8. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- A. E. Nivsarkar; P. K. Vij; M. S. Tantia; Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Directorate of Information and Publications on Agriculture (2000). Animal genetic resources of India: cattle and buffalo. Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Gross Domestic Product of Kerala and India From 2004-05 to 2012-13" (PDF). ecostat.kerala.gov.in. Government of Kerala. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- K. A. Martin. "State to switch fully to organic farming by 2016: Mohanan". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "CM: Will Get Total Organic Farming State Tag by 2016". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Kerala: Natural Resources". Government of India. Archived from the original on 18 December 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Kerala: April 2012" (PDF). Indian Brand Equity Fund. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- India. Planning Commission (1961). Third five year plan. Manager of Publications. p. 359. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Government of India Planning Commission (1 January 2008). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. p. 51. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Planning Commission, India (2007). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. p. 51. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- R. Quentin Grafton; Ray Hilborn; Dale Squires (2009). Handbook of Marine Fisheries Conservation and Management. Oxford University Press. pp. 10–12. ISBN 978-0-19-537028-7.
- Leela Gulati (1984). Fisherwomen on the Kerala Coast: Demographic and Socio-Economic Impact of a Fisheries Development Project. International Labour Organization. p. 103. ISBN 978-92-2-103626-5. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Journal of Kerala Studies. University of Kerala. 1987. p. 201. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Nair RR, Rajan B, Akiba S, Jayalekshmi P, Nair MK, Gangadharan P, Koga T, Morishima H, Nakamura S, Sugahara T (January 2009). "Background radiation and cancer incidence in Kerala, India-Karanagappally cohort study.". Health Physics. PMID 19066487.
- "About Us". Kerala Public Works Department. Government of India. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- "National Highways in Kerala". Kerala Public Works Department. Government of Kerala. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Hill Highway" (PDF) (in Malayalam). Government of Kerala. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "District of Palakkad - the granary of Kerala, Silent Valley National Park, Nelliyampathy". keralatourism.org. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "About us". Kerala Public Works Department. Government of Kerala. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Kumar VS (20 January 2006). "Kerala State transport project second phase to be launched next month". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 4 March 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Kumar VS (2003). "Institutional Strengthening Action Plan (ISAP)". Kerala Public Works Department. Government of Kerala. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Kumar KG (22 September 2003). "Accidentally notorious". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- "Kerala parties finally toe NHAI line of 45-m wide highways". Indian Express. 18 August 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "Check out India's 13 super expressways". Rediff.com. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- Special Correspondent (28 March 2013). "Kerala against development of five NHs". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "State's troubled highways a shocking revelation for Centre". The Hindu. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "Introduction" (PDF). Delhi Metro Rail Corporation. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "The Zonal Dream Of Railway Kerala". yentha.com. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Thiruvananthapuram Central to be made a world-class station". The Hindu. 2007-03-07. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
- "RailKerala". Trainweb. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Metro rail: DMRC demands prompt handing over of land, funds". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- "DMRC sets early deadline for Kochi Metro rail project". The Times of India. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "Aviation school proposal evokes mixed response". The Hindu. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "The three airports in Kerala can be in business without affecting each other". Rediff. 6 December 1999. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Government of India Planning Commission (1 January 2008). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. p. 207. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Paul, John (20 November 2007). "National Waterway III to be opened today". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Commissioner Linguistic Minorities (originally from Indian Census, 2001)". Archived from the original on 8 October 2007.
- "Population of India (1951–2001)" (PDF). Census of India. Indian Ministry of Finance. 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- "Population at a glance" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Size, Growth Rate and Distribution of Population" (PDF). Census 2011. Government of India. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011" (PDF). Cities with population greater than or equal to one lakh by size class in the state, 2011. Government of India. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- R Ramesh; R Purvaja; A Senthil Vel. Shoreline change assement for Kerala coast (PDF). National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management, Ministry of Environment and Forests. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Kalathil MJ (2004). Nair PR, Shaji H, eds. Withering Valli: Alienation, Degradation, and Enslavement of Tribal Women in Attappady (PDF). Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development. Thiruvananthapuram: Centre for Development Studies. ISBN 81-87621-69-9. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
- Thomas Benedikter (2009). Language Policy and Linguistic Minorities in India: An Appraisal of the Linguistic Rights of Minorities in India. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 90. ISBN 978-3-643-10231-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Government of India Planning Commission (1 January 2008). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. pp. 401–. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Sheldon Ivan Pollock (2003). Literary Culture in History: Reconstructions from South Asia. University of California Press. pp. 442–. ISBN 978-0-520-22821-4. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Manohararāya Saradesāya (1 January 2000). A History of Konkani Literature: From 1500 to 1992. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 298–. ISBN 978-81-7201-664-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Braj B. Kachru; Yamuna Kachru; S. N. Sridhar (27 March 2008). Language in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-0-521-78141-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- George Cardona (2003). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 803–. ISBN 978-0-7007-1130-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Kerala." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 8 June 2008
- Lankina; Tomila V.; Getachew, Lullit (2013). "Competitive religious entrepreneurs: Christian missionaries and female education in colonial and post-colonial India" (PDF). British Journal of Political Science: 43, 103–131.
- Ammu Joseph (1999). Oommen M.A., ed. Rethinking Development: Kerala's Development Experience. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 479–486. ISBN 978-81-7022-765-6. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Brenda Maddox mentions in: Maddox, Brenda. "A Marxist Paradise For Women?" New Statesman. (London, England: 1996) 128 no4440 30 January 14, 1999.
- Antherjanam, Lalithambika. Cast Me Out If You Will. New York: The Feminist Press, 1997.
- Jeffrey, Robin. "Governments and Culture: How Women Made Kerala Literate." Pacific Affairs. Volume 60, Issue 3 (Autumn, 1987), 447-472.
- "India Human Development Report 2011: Towards Social Inclusion" (PDF). Institute of Applied Manpower Research, Planning Commission, Government of India. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Kerala HDR 2005". Human Development Report. Asia and the Pacific: United Nations. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Human Development Report 2005" (PDF). Human Development Report. Asia and the Pacific: United Nations. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Human Development Index rose 21 per cent; Kerala tops chart". CNBC. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Growth, reforms lift living standards in India: Human development Index". Economic Times. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Sunil Mani; Anjini Kochar (1 January 2006). Kerala's Economy: Crouching Tiger, Sacred Cows. D.C. Books. p. 121. ISBN 978-81-264-1359-1. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "State of Literacy" (PDF). India Census 2011. Government of India. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- "Tripura tops literacy rate with 94.65 per cent, leaves behind Kerala". IBNLive. 9 September 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- Balaji, J. (22 October 2011). "Kerala tops in literacy rate, health services". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Centre for Development Studies Thiruvananthapuram (2006). Human Development Report 2005 Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala: State Planning Board.
- "EFA (Education for All) Global Monitoring Report" (PDF). UNESCO. 2003: 156. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- Kutty VR (2000). "Historical analysis of the development of health care facilities in Kerala State, India" (PDF). Health Policy and Planning. 15 (1): 103–109. doi:10.1093/heapol/15.1.103. PMID 10731241. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- Kutty VR (2004). Nair PR, Shaji H, eds. Why low birth weight (LBW) is still a problem in Kerala: A preliminary exploration (PDF). Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development. Thiruvananthapuram: Centre for Development Studies. p. 6. ISBN 81-87621-60-5. Retrieved 12 November 2007.
- Alagarajan M (December 2003). "An analysis of fertility differentials by religion in Kerala: A test of the interaction hypothesis" (PDF). Population Research and Policy Review. 22 (5/6): 557. doi:10.1023/B:POPU.0000020963.63244.8c.
- "India Corruption Study — 2005". Transparency International. June 2005. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Jean Dreze; Amartya Sen (28 November 2002). India: Development and Participation. Oxford University Press. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-19-925749-2. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "TABLE-3.1 Incidence And Rate Of Violent Crimes During 2011" (PDF). 21 June 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Child marriages remain Kerala's secret shame". The Hindu. 4 September 2015. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Conviction rate up, Kerala tops with over 77% link". The Times of India. New Delhi, India. 9 August 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Population of homeless in rural India dips". The Times of India. India. 7 December 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "CM told to pursue Zero Homeless Kerala project link". The Hindu. PATHANAMTHITTA, India. 3 November 2013.
- "Kerala-becomes-Indias-first-complete-digital-state link". The Times of India. New Delhi, India. 15 August 2015.
- Bill, McKibben. "The Enigma of Kerala". Utne. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Maya, C (12 December 2013). "The road to universal health care in State". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Krishnaswami P (2004). Neelakantan S, Nair PR, Shaji H, eds. Morbidity Study: Incidence, Prevalence, Consequences, and Associates (PDF). Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development. Thiruvananthapuram: Centre for Development Studies. ISBN 81-87621-66-4. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
- Roy MKP (2004). Water quality and health status in Kollam Municipality (PDF). Centre for Development Studies. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- "Why Kerala is the best place to die in India - The Economic Times". The Economic Times. 17 October 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- "Kerala Named World's First WHO-UNICEF "Baby-Friendly State"". United Nations Foundation. August 2002. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "Indian state wins 'baby-friendly' award". BBC News. Kochi, India. 1 August 2002.
- National Family Health 2005–06 Survey (NFHS-3) Kerala (PDF). Deonar, Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences. 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Unnikrishnan, E (2004). "Materia Medica of the Local Health Traditions of Payyannur" (PDF). Centre for Development Studies. Retrieved 22 January 2006.
- Angus Stewart, woodburn The Religious attitude: A psychological study of its differentiation, 1927
- "Kerala becomes first state to provide free cancer treatment - Free Press Journal". www.freepressjournal.in. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- "Health crisis in Kerala: The increase in cancer, kidney and liver diseases - The Economic Times". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- "Population by religious community - 2011". 2011 Census of India. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- Heller P (4 May 2003). "Social capital as a product of class mobilization and state intervention: Industrial workers in Kerala, India". University of California: 49–50. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
- "Population by religious communities". Census of India. Government of India. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "Increase in Muslim population in the State". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Sethi, Atul (24 June 2007). "'Trade, not invasion brought Islam to India'". Times of India. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- Katz 2000; Koder 1973; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; David de Beth Hillel, 1832; Lord, James Henry 1977.
- Chitra Divakaruni (16 February 2011). The Palace of Illusions. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-330-47865-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Prof. U. Mohammed (2007). Educational Empowerment of Kerala Muslims: A Socio-historical Perspective. Other Books. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-81-903887-3-3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- The Jews of India: A Story of Three Communities by Orpa Slapak. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. 2003. p. 27. ISBN 965-278-179-7.
- "Saint Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Mundalan, A. M; 1984; Podipara, Placid J. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956
- Selvister Ponnumuthan (1996). Authentic Interpretation in Canon Law: Reflections on a Distinctively Canonical Institution. Gregorian&Biblical BookShop. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-88-7652-721-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Raymond Brady Williams (13 November 1996). Christian Pluralism in the United States: The Indian Immigrant Experience. Cambridge University Press. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-0-521-57016-9. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Thomas Arthur Russell (June 2010). Comparative Christianity: A Student's Guide to a Religion and Its Diverse Traditions. Universal-Publishers. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-1-59942-877-2. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Allan Anderson; Edmond Tang (2005). Asian and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia. OCMS. pp. 248–. ISBN 978-1-870345-43-9. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- John Anthony McGuckin (15 December 2010). The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 377–. ISBN 978-1-4443-9254-8. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Stephen Neill (2 May 2002). A History of Christianity in India: 1707–1858. Cambridge University Press. pp. 247–249. ISBN 978-0-521-89332-9. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Burgess M., Stanley (January 2001). "PENTECOSTALISM IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW" (PDF). Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies. 4 (1): 95–96. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. pp. 192–. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Knut A. Jacobsen, Selva J. Rak; Selva J. Raj (2008). South Asian Christian Diaspora: Invisible Diaspora in Europe and North America. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 172–. ISBN 978-0-7546-6261-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Ajantha Subramanian (21 April 2009). Shorelines: Space and Rights in South India. Stanford University Press. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-0-8047-8685-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Weil, Shalva. "Jews in India." in M.Avrum Erlich (ed.) Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Diaspora, Santa Barbara, USA: ABC CLIO. 2008, 3: 1204–1212.
- Weil, Shalva. India's Jewish Heritage: Ritual, Art and Life-Cycle, Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2009. [first published in 2002; 3rd edn.]. Katz 2000; Koder 1973; Menachery 1998
- Joan G. Roland (1998). The Jewish Communities of India: Identity in a Colonial Era. Transaction Publishers. pp. 283–. ISBN 978-0-7658-0439-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Judaism. PediaPress. p. 386. GGKEY:XR3XES7NBKZ. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Stewart Lockie; David Carpenter (4 May 2012). Agriculture, Biodiversity and Markets: Livelihoods and Agroecology in Comparative Perspective. Routledge. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-136-54649-5. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- George Mathew; B S Baviskar (6 January 2009). Inclusion and Exclusion in Local Governance: Field Studies from Rural India. SAGE Publications. p. 204. ISBN 978-81-7829-860-3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Malayalam Literary Survey. Kerala Sahitya Akademi. 1984. p. 121.
- Manakkadan Manicoth Anand Ram (1999). Influx: Crete to Kerala. Keerthi Publishing House. p. 5.
- R. Raman Nair; L. Sulochana Devi (2010). Chattampi Swami: An Intellectual Biography. South Indian Studies. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-81-905928-2-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Monika Böck, Aparna Rao; Aparna Rao (2000). Culture, Creation, and Procreation: Concepts of Kinship in South Asian Practice. Berghahn Books. pp. 180–. ISBN 978-1-57181-911-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- M. Mohan Mathews (2001). India, Facts & Figures. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-81-207-2285-9. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. pp. 219–. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- K.S. Krishna Rao (2008). Global Encyclopaedia of the Brahmana Ethnography. Global Vision Publishing House. pp. 309–. ISBN 978-81-8220-208-5. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Government of Kerala (2002b). "Marumakkathayam". Department of Public Relations (Government of Kerala). Archived from the original on 21 May 2006. Retrieved 29 January 2006.
- Lindberg A (July 2004). "Modernization and Effeminization in India: Kerala Cashew Workers since 1930" (PDF). 18th European Conference on Modern South Asian Studies (EASAS). Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- Roy, Ranjan (1990). "Discovery of the Series Formula for π by Leibniz, Gregory, and Nilakantha". Mathematics Magazine. Mathematical Association of America. 63 (5): 291–306. doi:10.2307/2690896.
- Pingree, David (1992), "Hellenophilia versus the History of Science", Isis, 83 (4): 554–563, doi:10.1086/356288, JSTOR 234257,
One example I can give you relates to the Indian Mādhava's demonstration, in about 1400 A.D., of the infinite power series of trigonometrical functions using geometrical and algebraic arguments. When this was first described in English by Charles Whish, in the 1830s, it was heralded as the Indians' discovery of the calculus. This claim and Mādhava's achievements were ignored by Western historians, presumably at first because they could not admit that an Indian discovered the calculus, but later because no one read any more the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, in which Whish's article was published. The matter resurfaced in the 1950s, and now we have the Sanskrit texts properly edited, and we understand the clever way that Mādhava derived the series without the calculus; but many historians still find it impossible to conceive of the problem and its solution in terms of anything other than the calculus and proclaim that the calculus is what Mādhava found. In this case the elegance and brilliance of Mādhava's mathematics are being distorted as they are buried under the current mathematical solution to a problem to which he discovered an alternate and powerful solution.
- Planning Commission, India (2007). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. pp. 53–58. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Mookkiah Soundarapandian (1 January 2000). Literacy Campaign in India. Discovery Publishing House. p. 21. ISBN 978-81-7141-553-3.
- Planning Commission, India (2007). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. pp. 255–258. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- D Suresh Kumar (13 October 2008). "Kerala tops primary education index". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- Srikumar Chattopadhyay (2006). Striving for Sustainability: Environmental Stress and Democratic Initiatives in Kerala. Concept Publishing Company. p. 62. ISBN 978-81-8069-294-9. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Kerala becomes 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education". International Business Times. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- "Education in Kerala". Government of India. Archived from the original on 18 December 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Najith Kumar, K.K. George, "Kerala's education system: from inclusion to exclusion", Economic and Political Weekly, 10 October 2009, VOL XLIV, NO 41, page 55
- Najith Kumar, K.K. George, "Kerala's education system: from inclusion to exclusion", Economic and Political Weekly, 10 October 2009, VOL XLIV, NO 41, page 56
- A. Sreedhara Menon (1978). Cultural Heritage of Kerala: An Introduction. East-West Publications. p. 10.
- Contribution of Travancore to Karnatic Music. Information & Public Relations Department, Government of Kerala. 2004. pp. 7–37.
- S. Bhagyalekshmy (2004). Contribution of Travancore to Karnatic Music. Information & Public Relations Department, Government of Kerala. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- "India's overworked elephants". BBC. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- J. Devika (2005). Her-self: Early Writings on Gender by Malayalee Women, 1898–1938. Popular Prakashan. p. 5. ISBN 978-81-85604-74-9. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Kumar Suresh Singh (2004). People of India: Maharashtra. Popular Prakashan. p. 1524. ISBN 978-81-7991-102-0. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Cultural Heritage of Kerala. D.C. Books. 2008. p. 76. ISBN 978-81-264-1903-6.
- The Legacy of Kerala. Department of Public Relations, Government of Kerala. 1982. p. 34. ISBN 978-81-264-3798-6.
- World Encyclopaedia of Interfaith Studies: World religions. Jnanada Prakashan. 2009. pp. 704–710. ISBN 978-81-7139-280-3.
- "The stars of Pooram show are jumbos". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 26 May 2006. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Infokerala Communications Pvt. Ltd. (1 September 2013). Pilgrimage to Temple Heritage. Biju Mathew. p. 433. ISBN 978-81-921284-4-3.
- David Stott (10 April 2014). Kerala Footprint Focus Guide: Includes Kochi, Alappuzha, Thrissur, Periyar, River Nila. Footprint Travel Guides. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-909268-79-1.
- Madan Prasad Bezbaruah; Dr. Krishna Gopal; Phal S. Girota (2003). Fairs and Festivals of India: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu. Gyan Pub. House. pp. 80–88.
- M. G. S. Narayanan; K. K. N. Kurup (1976). Historical Studies in Kerala. Department of History, University of Calicut. pp. 68–81.
- Rolf Killius (2006). Ritual Music and Hindu Rituals of Kerala. B.R. Rhythms. p. 61. ISBN 978-81-88827-07-7.
- Chummar Choondal (1980). Kerala Folk Literature. Kerala Folklore Academy.
- A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6.
- Pratiyogita Darpan (October 2006). Pratiyogita Darpan. Pratiyogita Darpan. p. 624.
- Purāṇam. All-India Kasiraja Trust. 2004. p. 17.
- Cultural Heritage of Kerala. D.C. Books. 2008. p. 66. ISBN 978-81-264-1903-6.
- Praveen, M. P. (8 September 2011). "Myth, mystique, and traditions of Onam". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- IBP USA (3 March 2012). India Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments. Lulu.com. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-4387-7460-2.
- Infokerala Communications Pvt. Ltd. (1 September 2013). Pilgrimage to Temple Heritage. Biju Mathew. p. 535. ISBN 978-81-921284-4-3.
- A Biblical Approach to Indian Traditions and Beliefs. Armour Publishing Pte Ltd. 2008. p. 90. ISBN 978-981-4222-39-6.
- J Mohapatra (December 2013). Wellness In Indian Festivals & Rituals. Partridge Pub. p. 142. ISBN 978-1-4828-1690-7.
- Gouri Lakshmi Bayi (Princess.) (1998). Thulasi garland. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
- Kala Menon (November 2004). "Classical Dance Art Forms of Kerala" (PDF). Sruti Ranjini. 14 (1): 11.
- A Sreedhara Menon (2008). Cultural heritage of Kerala. D C Books. p. 106. ISBN 978-81-264-1903-6. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Kāvālaṃ Nārāyaṇappaṇikkar (1991). Folklore of Kerala. National Book Trust, India. p. 146. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Asha Kasbekar (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, And Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Motilal (UK) Books of India (1 February 2008). Tourist Guide Kerala. Sura Books. p. 8. ISBN 978-81-7478-164-2. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- A. Sreedhara Menon (1982). The Legacy of Kerala. D C Books. pp. 48–51. ISBN 978-81-264-2157-2. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Richard Schechner; Willa Appel (25 May 1990). By Means of Performance: Intercultural Studies of Theatre and Ritual. Cambridge University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-521-33915-5. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Richard Trillo (2000). World Music Volumn 2 Latin and North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-85828-636-5. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- A. Sreedhara Menon (1982). The Legacy of Kerala. D C Books. p. 41. ISBN 978-81-264-2157-2. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Menon, Sreedhara (2008). Cultural Heritage of Kerala. D C Books. pp. 128–129. ISBN 81-264-1903-2. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 751–753. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.
- Gangadhar, V. (2 October 2003). "Magic of Sophia Loren". Sunday Magazine. The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- Subburaj V.V.K. Sura's Year Book 2006. Sura Books. p. 620. ISBN 978-81-7254-124-8. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "K.J.Yesudas - GREATEST SINGERS OF INDIA". indiansingers.net. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "K. S. Chithra, is a legendary six time National film awards winning, Padmashree awardee singer who has made her mark in the Indian (film) music playback industry". stateofkerala.in. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Jnanpith Awards for ONV Kurup, Akhlaq Khan Shahryar". The Times of India. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Jnanpith Award Winners | UPSC Guide". upscguide.com. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- P. K. Parameswaran Nair (1967). History of Malayalam literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 296. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Sigfried J. de Laet (1994). History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. UNESCO. p. 407. ISBN 978-92-3-102813-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- K. M. George (1 January 1998). Eng when Poetry Comes. Sahitya Akademi. p. 58. ISBN 978-81-260-0413-3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- P. K. Parameswaran Nair (1967). History of Malayalam literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 118–121. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Madhubālā Sinhā (2009). Encyclopaedia of South Indian literature. Anmol Publ. p. 97. ISBN 978-81-261-3740-4. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- John V. Vilanilam (1987). Religious communication in India. Kairali Books International. p. 66. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Sukumār Al̲ikkōṭȧ (1979). Mahakavi Ulloor. Sahitya Akademi. p. 52. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Indian and Foreign Review. Publications Division of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. 1983. p. 25. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Ke. Eṃ Tarakan (1990). A brief survey of Malayalam literature: history of literature. K.M. Tharakan. pp. 41–52. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Subodh Kapoor (2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia: Biographical, Historical, Religious, Administrative, Ethnological, Commercial and Scientific. Mahi-Mewat. Cosmo. p. 4542. ISBN 978-81-7755-272-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Accessions List, South Asia. E.G. Smith for the U.S. Library of Congress Office, New Delhi. July 1994. p. 21. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Indian Writing Today. Nirmala Sadanand Publishers. 1967. p. 21. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Amaresh Datta; Sahitya Akademi (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: K to Navalram. Sahitya Akademi. p. 2394. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Malayalam Literary Survey. Kerala Sahitya Akademi. 1993. p. 19. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Eṃ Mukundan; C. Gopinathan Pillai (1 January 2004). Eng Adityan Radha And Others. Sahitya Akademi. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-260-1883-3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Ed. Vinod Kumar Maheshwari (1 January 2002). Perspectives On Indian English Literature. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 126. ISBN 978-81-269-0093-0. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Amit Chaudhuri (2008). Clearing a Space: Reflections On India, Literature, and Culture. Peter Lang. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1-906165-01-7. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Lyall, Sarah (15 October 1997). "Indian's First Novel Wins Booker Prize in Britain". New York Times. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Murdoch Books Pty Limited; Murdoch Books Test Kitchen (1 July 2010). India. Murdoch Books. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-74196-438-7. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Majumdar (2010). Consumer Behaviour: Insights From Indian Market. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 181. ISBN 978-81-203-3963-7. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Rachel Muthachen (1 January 1970). Regional Indian Recipes. Jaico Publishing House. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-7224-035-6. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- James Newton. Jay Rai's Kitchen - Keralan Cuisine. Springwood emedia. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-1-4761-2308-0. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Vijayan Kannampilly (30 May 2003). Essential Kerala Cook Book. Penguin Books India. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-14-302950-2. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Kerala with Lakshadweep. Outlook Publishing. 1 January 2005. p. 27. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- George Koilparampil (1982). Caste in the Catholic community in Kerala: a study of caste elements in the inter rite relationships of Syrians and Latins. Dept. of Sociology, St. Teresa's College. p. 233. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Paramatmananda (Swami.) (2000). Talks. Mata Amritanandamayi Center. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-879410-79-4. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "Kerala Cuisine". Ecotours. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Theresa Varghese (2006). Stark World Kerala. Stark World Pub. p. 224. ISBN 978-81-902505-1-1. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- K. Satchidanandan (2001). Indian Poetry: Modernism and After. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-81-260-1092-9. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997. Georg Thieme Verlag. p. 112. GGKEY:BJ6HEPE0NRE.
- "General Review". Registrar of Newspapers for India. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2006.
- K. M. George (1 January 1998). Eng when Poetry Comes. Sahitya Akademi. p. 186. ISBN 978-81-260-0413-3. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Sangeeta Tanwar (10 May 2010). "IRS 2010 Q1: Dailies in Kerala lose readers after gaining in the last round". Indian Readership Survey. New Delhi, India: afaqs.com. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- "Google Malayalam News".
- Ranjith KS (2004). Nair PR, Shaji H, eds. Rural Libraries of Kerala (PDF). Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development. Thiruvananthapuram: Centre for Development Studies. pp. 20–21. ISBN 81-87621-81-8. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- "Press Release, TRAI" (PDF). TRAI. 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Tele-density in Kerala". The Hindu. 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "Sports and Games in Kerala". Public Relations Dept, Kerala. 2002. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- Arnaud Van Der Veere (2012). Muay Thai. Meyer & Meyer Verlag. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84126-328-1.
- "India Wins World Twenty20 Thriller". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 25 September 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- "AIFF Award Player of the Year". All India Football Federation. Archived from the original on 15 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- James Wray; Ulf Stabe (15 September 2007). "Viva marks the resurgence of Kerala football". Monstersandcritics.com. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- "Past Winners". All India Football Federation. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "Kerala State Athletics Association: History". Kerala State Athletics Association. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- David Abram; Nick Edwards (2004). The Rough Guide to South India. Rough Guides. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-84353-103-6.
- "Jimmy George". Sports Portal. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- P.A. Reddy (1 January 2005). Sports Promotion In India. Discovery Publishing House. pp. 31–42. ISBN 978-81-7141-927-2. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "FIFA Event at Kochi: Time is Ticking Away". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2016-04-03.
- "Kerala Tourism: Paradises in the world". The Hindu. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
- "Pravasi KairaLi Home". Pravasikairali.com. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- "Kerala – The Gateway of India". Forbes. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
- "Kerala : National Geographic Traveler selects Kerala as 'one of the 50 must-see destinations of a lifetime'". Travel Portal of India. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- "Kerala beats Taj in Google Search Trends for 2012". Indian Express. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- Infokerala Communications Pvt. Ltd. (2012). Kerala Tradition & Fascinating Destinations. Biju Mathew | Info Kerala Communications Pvt Ltd. p. 314. ISBN 978-81-921284-8-1.
- Saju (6 August 2011). "DESTINATION WISE NUMBER OF FOREIGN TOURISTS VISITED KERALA DURING 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Tourist statistics – 2008" (PDF). Government of Kerala, Tourism Department. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- Santhanam K (27 January 2002). "An ideal getaway". The Hindu Magazine. Chennai, India. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- "Tourism beckons". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 11 May 2004. Retrieved 9 August 2006.
- Dasgupta Devashish (2011). Tourism Marketing. Pearson Education India. p. 203. ISBN 978-81-317-3182-6. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Tourist Statistics — 2006" (PDF). Department of Tourism. Government of Kerala. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- "Tourist inflow to Kerala crosses 10 million mark". Business-Standard. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- Planning Commission, India (2007). Kerala Development Report. Academic Foundation. p. 47. ISBN 978-81-7188-594-7. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Tourist Statistics — 2005 (Provisional)" (PDF). Department of Tourism. Government of Kerala. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- Tapan K Panda (2007). Tourism Marketing. ICFAI Books. pp. 173–177. ISBN 978-81-314-0469-0. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Kerala: Spellbound by this natural beauty". The Free Press Journal. 2 August 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- M.R. Biju (2006). Sustainable Dimensions Of Tourism Management. Mittal Publications. pp. 151–165. ISBN 978-81-8324-129-8. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Lakshadweep Sea||Tamil Nadu|