Samuel Hubbard Scudder

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Samuel Hubbard Scudder
Samuel Hubbard Scudder 1837-1911.jpg
Born (1837-04-13)April 13, 1837
Boston, Massachusetts
Died May 17, 1911(1911-05-17) (aged 74)
Boston, Massachusetts
Nationality American
Occupation Entomologist

Samuel Hubbard Scudder (April 13, 1837 – May 17, 1911) was an American entomologist and palaeontologist.

Born in Boston, Massachusetts,[1] Scudder may be most widely known for his essay on the importance of first-hand, careful observation in the natural sciences. The treatise on inductive reasoning, entitled "The Student, the Fish, and Agassiz",[2] reflects his initial experience, learning really to see, under the tutelage of Louis Agassiz at Harvard University.

He graduated from Williams College in 1857[1] and at Harvard University in 1862,[3] was a leading figure in American entomology from 1858, and the first North American insect palaeontologist. He also undertook systematic work with Lepidoptera (almost exclusively butterflies), Orthoptera,[1] Mantodea and Blattodea and fossil arthropods, including the exquisitely preserved butterfly Prodryas persephone.

A student of Mark Hopkins at Williams College and of Louis Agassiz at Harvard University,[1] Scudder was a prolific writer, publishing 791 papers between 1858 and 1902, on insect biogeography and paleobiogeography, insect behavior, ontogeny and phylogeny, insect songs, trace fossils, evolution, insect biology and economic entomology. He also wrote on ethnology, general geology, and geography.

His masterwork of fossil terrestrial arthropod research was the two-volume set Fossil Insects of North America: The Pre-tertiary Insects (1890) (a collection of his previous papers on Paleozoic and Mesozoic insects) and The Tertiary Insects of North America (1890).

He also published comprehensive reviews of the then-known fossil cockroaches of the world (1879), Carboniferous cockroaches of the United States (1890, 1895), and fossil terrestrial arthropods of the world (1886, 1891). Scudder's Nomenclator Zoologicus (1882–1884) was a seminal and comprehensive list of all generic and family names in zoology, including insects.

In other contributions Scudder was successively Curator, Librarian, Custodian, and President of the Boston Society of Natural History (1864–1870,[1] 1880–1887); co-founder of the Cambridge Entomological Club and its journal Psyche (1874); General Secretary of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1875) (Vice-President (1894).); cofounder, editor and guide of the Appalachian Mountain Club (1878);[4] first editor of Science magazine[1] (1883–1885); and United States Geological Survey Paleontologist[1] (1886–1892) among lesser endeavors.

Scudder died in Boston on May 17, 1911.


  • The Student, the Fish, and Agassiz, American Poems (3rd ed.; Boston: Houghton, Osgood & Co., 1879): pp. 450–54[5]
  • Butterflies: Their Structure, Changes, and Life Histories (1881)
  • Nomenclator zoologicus : an alphabetical list of all generic names that have been employed by naturalists for recent and fossil animals from the earliest times to the close of the year 1879 Bulletin of the United States national museum Washington Government printing office, 1882. XIX-340 p. (1882). On line at Gallica[6]
  • Butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada (1889)
  • The Fossil Insects of North America (two volumes, 1890)
  • Index to the Known Fossil Insects of the World (1891)
  • Tertiary Rhynchophorous Coleoptera of the United States (1893)
  • The Life of a Butterfly (1893)
  • Frail Children of the Air: Excursions into the World of Butterflies (1895)
  • Revision of the Orthopteran Group Melanopli (1897)
  • Everyday Butterflies (1899)
  • Catalogue of the Described Orthoptera of the United States and Canada (1900)
  • Adephagous and Clavicorn Coleoptera from the Tertiary Deposits at Florissant, Colorado (1900)
  • Index to North American Orthoptera (1901)


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Scudder, Samuel Hubbard, 1837-1911, Samuel Hubbard Scudder Papers". Record Unit 7249. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  2. ^ Scudder, "The Student, the Fish, and Agassiz"; "The Story behind the Story of 'The Student, the Fish, and Agassiz'" Dr. David Howard states that the story appears to derive from versions by well-known students of Professor Agassiz: Scudder and Nathaniel Shaler. "Scudder's version is a fuller, more detailed account than Shaler's."
  3. ^ New International Encyclopedia
  4. ^ Leach, William (2013) Butterfly People Pantheon Books ISBN 9780375422935 pg 48
  5. ^ The Student, the Fish, and Agassiz at
  6. ^ Gallica - Scudder, Samuel Hubbard. Nomenclator zoologicus : an alphabetical list of all generic names that have been employed by naturalists for recent and fossil animals from... at

Additional References[edit]

  • Cockerell, T. D. A. (1911). "Samuel Hubbard Scudder". Science. 34 (872): 338–342. Bibcode:1911Sci....34..338C. doi:10.1126/science.34.872.338. 
  • Essig, E. O. (1931). A History of Entomology. MacMillan Company. pp. 758–762. 
  • Leach, William (2013). Butterfly People. Pantheon Books. 
  • Mallis, Arnold (1971). American Entomologists. Rutgers University Press. pp. 185–191. 
  • Mayor, Alfred Goldsborough (1919). "Samuel Hubbard Scudder 1837-1911" (PDF). National Academy of Science Biographical Memoirs. 17 (3). 
  • Sorensen, W. Conner (1995). Brethren of the Net, American Entomology, 1840-1880. University of Alabama Press. 
  • Sterling, Keir B., ed. (1997). "Scudder, Samuel Hubbard". Biographical Dictionary of American and Canadian Naturalists and Environmentalists. Greenwood Press. 
  • "Scudder, Samuel Hubbard". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, vol. 12. Charles Scribner's Sons. 2008. p. 264. 

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