Sanghyang Kamahayanikan

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Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan is a prose literature of old Javanese people. This Tantric Buddhist treatise describes Javanese Buddhism, architecture and iconography.[1]:128–129 The back side of this literature contain a name of Javanese king, i.e. Mpu Sindok, which is throned at East Java from 929 to 947 C.

In his dissertation, Dr. Noehardi Magetsari (2000) mentioned that the structure of Borobudur actually show the developmental stages of a yogi experiences to achieve Buddhahood where feelings and thoughts stop. Borobudur's popular term of Kamadhatu, Rupadhatu, Arupadhatu are also contained in Sanghyang Kamahayanikan.[2]


It was written about 929-947 C by Mpu Shri Sambhara Surya Warama from East Java, the successor of Mataram Kingdom which was shifted to East Java. The oldest literature was found on Lombok Island in 1900 C. Professor Yunboll discussed it on 1908 and was translated into Dutch language by J.deKatt in 1940' later it was inspected by Professor Wuff. This literature was translated into Indonesia language by I Gusti Bagus Sugriwa. Last translation process is done by "Translation Team of Buddhist Scriptures Ditura Buddha, Indonesian Ministry of Religious Affairs."[3]


This literature contain Mahayana (especially Vajrayana) Buddhism teaching, mostly about the list of deities in Mahayana - which is often matched with the placement of the Buddhist kings in the Borobudur temple. The literature also contain the procedure of meditation.

According to D.K. Widya, Sanghyang Kamahayanikan teaches how one can attain Buddhahood, i.e. a student must first practice Pāramitā, then described Paramaguhya and Mahaguhya. As an addition, it also explained the philosophy of Adwaya that overcoming the dualism "existence" and "non-existence".[3] In the book there is a very detailed description of how a tantric yogi prepare himself for spiritual path, from the start until the implementation of multilevel worships. It is said that the Vajrayana doctrines is meditation towards Five Tathagata. By worshipping them, a yogi can attain the purity of mind.[2]

Popular culture[edit]

  1. Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan Award is an award of Borobudur Writers & Cultural Festival for any individual or groups who have been responsible and has contributed greatly to the cultural and historical assessment of Indonesia. The award mainly conferred to Indonesian or international historians, writers, archaeologists, cultural, historical background author, playwright, puppeteer, clergy, philologist, and so on.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1. 
  2. ^ a b c Borobudur Writers Festival. Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan Award.
  3. ^ a b Evan Setio. Kitab Sanghyang Kamahayanikan. (in Indonesian)

External links[edit]