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Schiavone (singular; plural Schiavoni) is an Italian ethnonym literally meaning "Slavs" in Old Italian: originally, this term indicated origins in the lands of Dalmatia and Istria (in present-day Croatia), when under the rule of the Republic of Venice. Today it is an Italian surname.
The importance of Schiavoni's role in the Venetian Republic is best shown by the name of one of the main streets in Venice, Riva degli Schiavoni, just in front of the Doge Palace and San Marco Square.
A number of artists who worked in Italy who were of Croatian descent were nicknamed Schiavone by their origin: most famous among them is Giulio Clovio (Julije Klović). However, the name Schiavone was not exclusive to Croats. For example, Francesco Laurana, Luciano Laurana and Andrea Meldolla are examples of people from Dalmatia who were not of any known Croatian descent, but were still called Schiavone. Also, referring to artists from Dalmatia by using their place of origin as a surname was common in Italy at the time, for example in the cases of Giovanni Dalmata or Giorgio da Sebenico.
Schiavone was also a designation of the Oltremarini, a military unit or a group of assassins of the same descent in the Venetian Navy. The basket-hilted sword schiavona was also named after the Schiavone.
In Italy, the surname Schiavone (Italian pronunciation: [skjaˈvone]) mostly occurs in the southernmost regions of the mainland, namely Campania and Apulia, but it is also common in Rome, Turin, Milan, and Syracuse. Thanks to emigration, branches of the Schiavone family can also be found in Argentina, Brazil, Malta, Uruguay, United Kingdom, the Philippines and the United States.
- Ginestra degli Schiavoni, a village in Campania, Italy
- Riva degli Schiavoni, a promenade in Venice, Italy
- San Giacomo degli Schiavoni, a village in Molise, Italy
- Scuola di San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, a historical building in Venice, Italy
- Villa Schiavoni near Nepezzano, Teramo, Abruzzo, Italy
- Aldo Schiavone, Italian historian, lecturer and essayist
- Andrea Schiavone, Venetian artist
- Annabella Schiavone, Italian comedienne.
- Assunta De Rossi (born 1983), Philippine actress, real name Assunta Schiavone
- Alessandra De Rossi (born 1984), Philippine actress, real name Alessandra Schiavone, younger sister of Assunta de Rossi
- Dave Schiavone, American jazz saxophonist
- Francesca Schiavone, (born 1980), Italian tennis player
- Francesco Schiavone, (born 1953), member of the Camorra crime syndicate
- Gianfelice Schiavone, Italian footballer.
- Giorgio Schiavone (Juraj Ćulinović, 1433-1504) Dalmatian painter, active in Padua, Italy
- Giuseppe Schiavone, Italian brigand.
- Joe Schiavoni, American politician
- Laura Schiavone, Italian rower.
- Joseph J. Schiavone, (born 1955), Arbitrationist
- Luigi Schiavone, Italian guitarist
- Louise Schiavone, American journalist
- Patricio Schiavone, (born 1985), Argentine actor
- Patrick Schiavone, American Ford F-150 designer
- Patrizia Schiavone, Italian basketball player
- Tony Schiavone (born 1964), American professional wrestling announcer
- David Schiavone, Italian football journalist
- Gretta Schiavone, of the singing group The Laurie Sisters
- Phyllis Schiavone, of the singing group The Laurie Sisters
- Carolyn Schiavone, of the singing group The Laurie Sisters
- Michael Schiavone, Italian-American Casting Director.
- Claire Schiavone, Scottish cellist, music instructor