Sea star-associated densovirus

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Ambidensovirus
Virus classification
Group:
Group II (ssDNA)
Order:
Unassigned
Family:
Subfamily:
Genus:
Type species
Sea star-associated densovirus

Sea star-associated densovirus (SSaDV) belongs to the Parvoviridae family. Like the other members of its family, it is a single-stranded DNA virus. SSaDV has been suggested to be an etiological agent of sea star wasting disease, but conclusive evidence has not yet been obtained.[1] Further work in 2018 and 2020 re-examined the association between SSaDV and sea star wasting and found no evidence in both the original work and subsequent surveys of sea stars.[2][3] More recently, densoviruses associated with echinoderms were recognized as forming persistent infections in their hosts [4] and become endogenized within sea star genomic DNA.[3] Densoviruses including SSaDV become more pronounced during sea star wasting progression, but no single strain is associated with sea star wasting disease.[5]

Epidemiology[edit]

SSaDV affects sea stars from southern Alaska to Baja California. It tends to occur in large outbreaks with high mortality, as it has in 1972, 1978, 2013, and 2014. See Sea star wasting disease.[1] The virus was observed in wasting Pycnopodia helianthoides, and detected in small quantities in healthy sea stars and aquarium sediments.[1] The highest viral load was found in the body wall of the central disk.[1] A similar virus infecting sea stars on the Atlantic Coast of North America is found in only healthy specimens.[4] As of 2021, SSaDV is no longer believed to be associated with sea star wasting disease but may rather be one of many viruses that replicate as a consequence of disease process.[6]

Structure[edit]

The genomic characteristics of SSaDV are similar to the other members of the genus Ambidensovirus.[1] It is predicted to be a non-enveloped icosahedral particle at ~25 nm, although the virus has never been imaged.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Hewson, Ian; Button, Jason B.; Gudenkauf, Brent M.; Miner, Benjamin; Newton, Alisa L.; Gaydos, Joseph K.; Wynne, Janna; Groves, Cathy L.; Hendler, Gordon (December 2014). "Densovirus associated with sea-star wasting disease and mass mortality". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111 (48): 17278–83. Bibcode:2014PNAS..11117278H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1416625111. PMC 4260605. PMID 25404293.
  2. ^ Hewson, Ian; Bistolas, Kalia S. I.; Quijano Cardé, Eva M.; Button, Jason B.; Foster, Parker J.; Flanzenbaum, Jacob M.; Kocian, Jan; Lewis, Chaunte K. (2018). "Investigating the Complex Association Between Viral Ecology, Environment, and Northeast Pacific Sea Star Wasting". Frontiers in Marine Science. 5. doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00077. ISSN 2296-7745.
  3. ^ a b Jackson, Elliot W.; Wilhelm, Roland C.; Johnson, Mitchell R.; Lutz, Holly L.; Danforth, Isabelle; Gaydos, Joseph K.; Hart, Michael W.; Hewson, Ian (2020-09-23). Pfeiffer, Julie K. (ed.). "Diversity of Sea Star-Associated Densoviruses and Transcribed Endogenous Viral Elements of Densovirus Origin". Journal of Virology. 95 (1): e01594–20, /jvi/95/1/JVI.01594–20.atom. doi:10.1128/JVI.01594-20. ISSN 0022-538X. PMC 7737747. PMID 32967964.
  4. ^ a b Jackson, Elliot W.; Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Johnson, Mitchell R.; Distel, Daniel L.; Hewson, Ian (2020-01-10). Alexandre, Gladys (ed.). "A Highly Prevalent and Pervasive Densovirus Discovered among Sea Stars from the North American Atlantic Coast". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 86 (6): e02723–19, /aem/86/6/AEM.02723–19.atom. doi:10.1128/AEM.02723-19. ISSN 0099-2240. PMC 7054102. PMID 31924612.
  5. ^ Hewson, Ian; Aquino, Citlalli A.; DeRito, Christopher M. (November 2020). "Virome Variation during Sea Star Wasting Disease Progression in Pisaster ochraceus (Asteroidea, Echinodermata)". Viruses. 12 (11): 1332. doi:10.3390/v12111332. PMC 7699681. PMID 33233680.
  6. ^ Hewson, Ian; Aquino, Citlalli A.; DeRito, Christopher M. (November 2020). "Virome Variation during Sea Star Wasting Disease Progression in Pisaster ochraceus (Asteroidea, Echinodermata)". Viruses. 12 (11): 1332. doi:10.3390/v12111332.

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