Consistent life ethic

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The consistent life ethic, or the consistent ethic of life is an ideology that opposes abortion, capital punishment, assisted suicide, and euthanasia. Adherents are opposed, at the very least, to unjust war, while some adherents also profess pacifism, or opposition to all war.[1] The term was coined in 1983 by the Catholic Cardinal Joseph Bernardin to express an ideology based on the premise that all human life is sacred and should be protected by law.[2]

History[edit]

The phrase "consistent ethic of life" was used as far back as a 1971 speech delivered by then-Archbishop Humberto Medeiros of Boston.[3]

Eileen Egan[edit]

In 1971, Roman Catholic pacifist Eileen Egan coined the phrase "seamless garment" to describe a holistic reverence for life.[4][5] The phrase is a Bible reference from John 19:23 to the seamless robe of Jesus, which his executioners did not tear apart. The seamless garment philosophy holds that issues such as abortion, capital punishment, militarism, euthanasia, social injustice, and economic injustice all demand a consistent application of moral principles that value the sacredness of human life. "The protection of life", said Egan, "is a seamless garment. You can't protect some life and not others." Her words were meant to challenge those members of the pro-life movement who were in favor of capital punishment.

Joseph Cardinal Bernardin[edit]

Cardinal Joseph Bernardin of Chicago helped publicize the consistent life ethic idea in 1983.[6] Initially, Bernardin spoke out against nuclear war and abortion. However, he quickly expanded the scope of his view to include all aspects of human life. In one of the first speeches given on the topic at Fordham University, Bernardin said: "The spectrum of life cuts across the issues of genetics, abortion, capital punishment, modern warfare and the care of the terminally ill."[7] Bernardin said that although each of the issues was distinct, nevertheless the issues were linked since the valuing and defending of (human) life were, he believed, at the center of both issues. Bernardin told an audience in Portland, Oregon: "When human life is considered 'cheap' or easily expendable in one area, eventually nothing is held as sacred and all lives are in jeopardy."[7]

Bernardin drew his stance from New Testament principles, specifically of forgiveness and reconciliation, yet he argued that neither the themes nor the content generated from those themes were specifically Christian.[8] By doing this, Bernardin attempted to create a dialogue with others who were not necessarily aligned with Christianity.

Bernardin and other advocates of this ethic sought to form a consistent policy that would link abortion, capital punishment, economic injustice, euthanasia, and unjust war.[2] Bernardin sought to unify conservative Catholics (who opposed abortion) and liberal Catholics (who opposed capital punishment) in the United States. By relying on fundamental principles, Bernardin also sought to coordinate work on several different spheres of Catholic moral theology. In addition, Bernardin argued that since the 1950s the church had moved against its own historical, casuistic exceptions to the protection of life. "To summarize the shift succinctly, the presumption against taking human life has been strengthened and the exceptions made ever more restrictive."[2]

Other supporters[edit]

The Consistent Life Ethic has spread from Catholic theology to supporters such as jazz writer Nat Hentoff

The non-profit organization Consistent Life, founded in 1987 as the Seamless Garment Network, promotes adherence to the ethic through education and non-violent action. Individual endorsers belonging to the Consistent Life organization include Father Daniel Berrigan, theologian Harvey Cox, Village Voice columnist Nat Hentoff, Father Theodore Hesburgh, actress Patricia Heaton, L'Arche founder Jean Vanier, pro-life activist Abby Johnson, Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams and Nobel Peace Prize laureates Mairead Corrigan Maguire and Adolfo Pérez Esquivel.[9] Rachel MacNair, for ten years (1994-2004) President of Feminists for Life, a pro-life organization,[10] is the director of the Institute for Integrated Social Analysis, the research arm of Consistent Life.[11][12]

In the US, several organizations have promoted the "consistent ethic of life" approach, including the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and the American Solidarity Party.[13][14] Groups without a religious orientation that support the ideology include Secular Pro-Life, Democrats for Life of America, the Pro-Life Alliance of Gays and Lesbians (PLAGAL), and All Our Lives (a pro-contraception feminist group), all of which are members of the Consistent Life network. Other secular groups supporting consistent ethic of life position but not known to be affiliated with the Consistent Life Network include Rehumanize International (formerly known as Life Matters Journal)[15][16] and New Wave Feminists.[17][18] Other prominent authors who have written in support of the consistent life ethic include Frank Pavone,[19] James Martin,[20] John Dear,[21][4][22] Ron Sider[23] Tony Campolo,[24][25][26] Joel Hunter,[26] and Shane Claiborne.[26][27][28]

Issues[edit]

According to Michael Leach, "If one contends, as we do, that the right of every fetus to be born should be protected by civil law and supported by civil consensus, then our moral, political and economic responsibilities do not stop at the moment of birth."[5] This viewpoint was emphasized by Pope John Paul II in his 1995 encyclical, Evangelium Vitae (Gospel of Life).[29] This book-length document outlined the Pope's emphasis on fostering a culture of life based on the New Testament and the life of Jesus. Specifically, he emphasized the value and inviolability of human life, from conception until natural death.

Abortion[edit]

Rather than "thinking of a pregnant women and her fetus as being adversaries battling over exclusive rights, the right of a woman to control her body versus the right of the fetus to live long enough to control hers", a Consistent Life Ethic would view both as valuable and important, and seek to provide both all the support they needed to live and live well.[30]

Capital punishment[edit]

Traditionally, arguments for the death penalty focus on the idea that it: 1) deters further violence; 2) enacts just retribution on the criminal, effectively gaining a sense of justice for society and those affected by the crime; 3) seeks to reform other criminals with the threat of such severe punishment and; 4) protects society from those criminals which the government has deemed to be the most heinous.[citation needed]

Bernardin and some other consistent life ethic advocates recognize the right of the state to use capital punishment. However, they reject the necessity of this type of punishment for many reasons, arguing that there are more appropriate and effective ways for the state to defend its people. Many consistent life ethic advocates call for a total abolition of the death penalty. The consistent ethic's opposition to capital punishment is rooted in the conviction that an atmosphere of respect for life must pervade a society, and resorting to the death penalty does not support this attitude.[31] Adherents argue that the result of the death penalty – removing the criminal from society, enacting justice on the criminal, and bringing about feelings of revenge for those affected and the greater society – do not necessarily have to be accomplished by taking a life.

One out-spoken anti-death penalty activist is Sister Helen Prejean. Her books Dead Man Walking and The Death of Innocents: An Eyewitness Account to Wrongful Executions are autobiographical accounts of the time she spent ministering to death row inmates.[32] Another notable independent Catholic anti-death penalty organization is Priests for Life.

Health care[edit]

According to Ron Hamel,

...a moral vision constituted by the consistent ethic of life sensitizes one to procedures, technological developments, and aspects of the health care system that fail to promote or do not adequately promote human dignity and do not sufficiently enhance human life. ...it is not sufficient to only oppose euthanasia, but one must also be concerned about and address those factors that give rise to euthanasia and find ever better ways to care for the dying and ensure the dying the opportunity to forgo treatment and to live their lives fully while dying.[33]

Other issues[edit]

Appeal to the consistent life ethic has been made in support of universal health care[34] and care for immigrants and refugees.[35][34][36][37] While not directly appealing to the consistent life ethic, other Catholics have sought to apply the "pro-life" ethic to the issue of immigration.[38][39][40]

Criticisms[edit]

One criticism made of the consistent ethic position is that it inadvertently helped provide "cover" for Catholic politicians who supported legalized abortion or wanted to minimize this issue, a circumstance that Bernadin himself both recognized and deplored.[41][3]

Archbishop José Gómez of Los Angeles criticized the "seamless garment" approach in 2016 because in his view it results in "a mistaken idea that all issues are morally equivalent."[42][43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Worthen, Molly (2012-09-15). "The Power of Political Communion". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  2. ^ a b c Bernardin, Joseph. Consistent ethics of life 1988, Sheed and Ward
  3. ^ a b Gregg, Samuel. "The Consistent—and Not So Seamless—Ethic of Life", The Catholic World Report, August 13, 2015
  4. ^ a b Dear, J. (2005). The God of Peace: Toward A Theology of Nonviolence. Wipf & Stock Publishers. p. 158ff. ISBN 978-1-59752-112-3. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Leach, Michael. "Cardinal Bernardin's gift fits all sizes", National Catholic Reporter, November 6, 2012
  6. ^ Bernardin, 1988, p. v.
  7. ^ a b Overberg, Kenneth R. S.J.:"A Consistent Ethic of Life", Catholic Update, St. Anthony's Press, 2009
  8. ^ Walter, James J. and Shannon, Thomas A.: Contemporary Issues in Bioethics: A Catholic perspective, Rowan and Littlefeild Publishers, 2005.
  9. ^ "Consistent Life Individual Endorsers As of January 9, 2017" (PDF). Consistent Life Network. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  10. ^ MacNair, R.M. Achieving Peace in the Abortion War. iUniverse (December 22, 2008) 180 pages. ISBN-10: 1440113254. ISBN-13: 978-1440113253
  11. ^ "Institute for Integrated Social Analysis". Consistent Life. Retrieved January 9, 2012. 
  12. ^ [Macnair, R.M. ProLife Feminism: Yesterday and Today. 2006]
  13. ^ Hughes, Mariann (30 October 2016). "The search for a third way in U.S. politics". Our Sunday Visitor. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  14. ^ "Complete Platform". American Solidarity Party. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  15. ^ http://www.rehumanizeintl.org/
  16. ^ Graham, Ruth (2016-10-11). "The New Culture of Life". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2017-04-10. 
  17. ^ Halper, Daniel (9 June 2016). "WH Denies Endorsement Will Intimidate FBI Investigators". Weekly Standard. Retrieved 11 February 2017. 
  18. ^ "About". New Wave Feminists. Retrieved 11 February 2017. 
  19. ^ The Consistent Ethic of Life: Myths and Realities, Priests for Life Official Website, 1 January 1999
  20. ^ Gun Control is a Pro-Life Issue, America, 17 December 2012
  21. ^ Dear, John (15 July 2008). "The Consistent Ethic of Life". FatherJohnDear.org. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  22. ^ "Consistent Life Network Endorsers". Consistent Life Network. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  23. ^ Sider, Ron (1987). Completely Pro-Life. Intervarsity Press. ISBN 978-0830817061. 
  24. ^ Campolo, Tony (October 18, 2006). "Who is Really Pro-Life?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  (revised May 25, 2011)
  25. ^ Merritt, Jonathan (December 17, 2013). "Tony Campolo hits hard on abortion, gay marriage, Israel and more". Religion News Service. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
  26. ^ a b c Pally, Marcia (28 Dec 2011). "The New Evangelicals: How Christians are rethinking Abortion and Gay Marriage". Australian Broadcasting Commission. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
  27. ^ Claiborne, Shane (January 22, 2013). "A Dialogue on What it Means to be Pro-Life". Red Letter Christians. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
  28. ^ Claiborne, Shane. The Irresistible Revolution. Zondervan. 
  29. ^ Paul, John, II. Evangelium vitae. Vatican City : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995.
  30. ^ Kelly, Kevin. "The consequences of treating a fetus as a human being", Whole Earth Review, June 22, 1986
  31. ^ Bernardin, Cardinal Joseph A.: The Seamless Garment: Writings on the Consistent Ethic of Life Orbis Books, 2008.
  32. ^ MacNair, Rachel M., and Zunes, Stephen: Consistently Opposing Killing: from abortion to assisted suicide, the death penalty and war, pages 58-60. Praeger Publishers, 2008.
  33. ^ Hamel, Ron. "Twenty-Five Years Later: Cardinal Bernardin's Consistent Ethic of Life", Health Progress November - December 2008
  34. ^ a b "On health care, a consistent ethic of life". The Long Island Catholic. 48 (23). 30 September 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  35. ^ Scribner, Todd (31 July 2014). "The Gospel of Life and the Catholic approach to the refugee crisis". Catholics in Alliance for the Common Good. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  36. ^ Adkins, Jason (13 August 2014). "Catholic Spirit: Border children and a consistent ethic of life". Minnesota Catholic Conference. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  37. ^ Kangas, Billy (22 January 2015). "Keeping "Pro-Life" Consistent". The Orant. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  38. ^ "Catholic Leaders to Congress: Immigration Reform is a Pro-Life Issue". Faith in Public Life. 20 January 2015. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. 
  39. ^ Allen, John L. Jr. (5 April 2014). "Immigration reform becomes a Catholic ‘pro-life’ cause". Boston Globe. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  40. ^ Winters, Michael Sean (21 January 2015). "Catholic leaders push immigration as pro-life issue". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  41. ^ Neff, Ronald N. (16 August 2005). "The "Seamless Garment" Revisited". Sobran's. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  42. ^ Staff Reporter (4 February 2016). "Archbishop Gomez: The Root Violence in Our Society Is the Violence Against the Most Vulnerable". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  43. ^ Eli, Bradley (5 February 2016). "Abp. Gomez Irons Out ‘Seamless Garment’". Church Militant. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 

Sources[edit]

  • Bernardin, Joseph. Consistent ethics of life 1988, Sheed and Ward
  • Byrnes, Timothy A. "The politics of the American Catholic hierarchy". Political Science Quarterly 108 (3): 497. 1993.
  • McClintock, Jamie S., and Perl, Paul. "The Catholic 'Consistent Life Ethic' and Attitudes Toward Capital Punishment and Welfare Reform." Sociology of Religion. 62(2001): 275-299
  • McCormick, Richard A. "The Quality of Life, the Sanctity of Life." The Hastings Center Report 8, No 1 (1978): 30-36.
  • McHugh, J. T. "Building a Culture of Life: A Catholic Perspective". Christian Bioethics, 2001 (Taylor & Francis)
  • Wallis, Jim. God's Politics, 2004.

Further reading[edit]