At present time (as of June 2013), the district consists of only the town of Misato with an estimated population of 20,771 and an area of 168.36 km². All of the city of Semboku, most of the city of Daisen and part of the city of Yokote were formerly part of Senboku District.
The area of Senboku District was formerly part of Dewa Province, and was originally created out of Hiraka District in the year 870. Dewa Province was divided into the provinces of Ugo Province and Uzen Province following the Meiji restoration on January 19, 1869, with the area of Senboku becoming part of Ugo Province. At the time, the area consisted of one town (Kakunodate) and 181 villages formerly under the control of Kubota Domain. Akita Prefecture was founded on December 13, 1871.
On September 20, 2005 - the towns of Kakunodate and Tazawako, and the village of Nishiki were merged to create the city of Semboku. Following this merger, Senboku District was left with only the town of Misato.