Sima (Chinese surname)
Sima in regular script
|Word/Name||One of the offices of the Zhou dynasty's Three Excellencies|
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Sima ([sɹ̩́mà], simplified Chinese: 司马; traditional Chinese: 司馬; pinyin: Sīmǎ; Wade–Giles: Ssu-ma) is a Chinese family name. It is one of the rare two-character Chinese family names; most Chinese family names consist of only a single-character. It is an occupation name, literally meaning "control" (sī) "horses" (mǎ); in a similar way as the surname Marshall is derived from the Frankish: "mare" (horse) + "skalkoz" (master). The family name originated from one of the offices of the Three Excellencies of the Zhou dynasty. The name has also been anglicised as "Sma".
The Sima clan claims a line of descent from the mythological Yellow Emperor, through his descendant Cheng Boxiufu (程伯休父). King Xuan of Zhou appointed Cheng Boxiufu as the Sima or Minister of War. Due to his success in subduing the Xirong rebellion, he was granted permission to use the title as his surname.
The Sima family in Zhao became ministers. Sima Ang, King of Yin, was a member of this branch. His 11th-generation descendant was Sima Fang, the father of Sima Yi. Sima Yi's descendants established the Jin dynasty and ruled as emperors. After the Jin dynasty ended, many members of the clan changed their surname to avoid persecution.
The Sima family in Qin included Sima Ji, a general who battled alongside Bai Qi during the Battle of Changping. His fifth-generation descendant was Sima Tan, a Han dynasty court astrologer, and his son was Sima Qian, the author of Records of the Grand Historian.
List of persons with the surname
- Cheng Boxiufu, first took the title Sima as his surname
- Sima Niu, disciple of Confucius
- Sima Xin, Qin dynasty official and general, later King of Sai.
- Sima Ang, Qin dynasty official, later King of Yin
- Sima Qian, historian during the Western Han dynasty and author of Records of the Grand Historian
- Sima Tan, historian during the Western Han dynasty
- Sima Xiangru, a minor official during the Western Han dynasty but better known for his poetic skills, Chinese wine (jiu) business and controversial marriage to a widow Zhuo Wenjun after both eloped.
- Sima Lang, Sima Yi's elder brother, Han dynasty politician.
- Sima Fu, Sima Yi's younger brother, Cao Wei politician.
- Sima Yi, Cao Wei regent, general and politician.
- Sima Shi, Sima Yi's eldest son, Cao Wei general and regent.
- Sima Zhao, Sima Yi's second son, Cao Wei general and regent.
- Sima Wang, Sima Fu's son, Cao Wei politician.
- Sima Liang,Sima Yi's fourth son, first among the Eight Princes
- Sima Wei, fifth son of Emperor Wu of Jin, second among the Eight Princes
- Sima Lun, Sima Yi's youngest son, third among the Eight Princes
- Sima Jiong, son of Sima You, fourth among the Eight Princes
- Sima Yan, Sima Zhao's son, founding emperor of the Jin dynasty (265–420).
- Sima Ai, sixth son of Emperor Wu of Jin, fifth among the Eight Princes
- Sima Ying, 16th son of Emperor Wu of Jin, sixth among the Eight Princes
- Sima Yong, Sima Fu's grandson, seventh among the Eight Princes
- Sima Yue, cousin of Emperor Wu of Jin, eighth among the Eight Princes
- Sima Guang, historian and statesman during the Song dynasty, known for his monumental historical work Zizhi Tongjian and rivalry against contemporary Wang Anshi. There is a popular story of him, as a youth, saving someone who fell into a large water pot by smashing it with a rock.
- Sima Zhong, second emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Chi, third emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Ye, fourth emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Rui, fifth emperor of the Jin dynasty and founder of the Eastern Jin dynasty
- Sima Shao, sixth emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Yan, seventh emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Yue, emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Dan, emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Pi, emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Yi, emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Yu, emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Yao, emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Dezong, emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sima Dewen, last emperor of the Jin dynasty
- Sire Ma, Hong Kong actress from Chongqing born with the surname Sima.
- Sima Nan, Chinese scholar, journalist, social commentator.
- Sima Pingbang, Chinese scholar, social commentator.
- Jin dynasty (265–420)
- Records of the Grand Historian
- Family tree of Sima Yi
- Chinese emperors family tree (early)#Jin Dynasty and Chu
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