Site enhancement oil

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Site enhancement oil, often called "synthol" (no relation to the Synthol mouthwash sold in pharmacies in France) is a non muscle-developing method of imitating muscle development used by some bodybuilders.

Some bodybuilders, particularly at the professional level, inject substances such as "site enhancement oil", commonly known as synthol, to mimic the appearance of developed muscle where it may otherwise be disproportionate or lagging.[1] This is known as "fluffing".[2][3] Synthol is 85% oil, 7.5% lidocaine, and 7.5% alcohol.[2] It is not restricted, and many brands are available on the Internet.[4] The use of injected oil to enhance muscle appearance is common among bodybuilders,[5][6] despite the fact that synthol can cause pulmonary embolisms, nerve damage, infections, sclerosing lipogranuloma,[7] stroke,[2] and the formation of oil-filled granulomas, cysts or ulcers in the muscle.[6][8][9] Sesame oil is often used, which can cause allergic reactions such as vasculitis.[10] An aesthetic issue is drooping of muscle under gravity.[4]


  1. ^ Jason, P (March 31, 2015). "Synthol Abuse in Bodybuilding". 
  2. ^ a b c Pupka, A; Sikora J; Mauricz J; Cios D; Płonek T. (2009). "The usage of synthol in the body building". Polim Med. (in Polish). 39 (1): 63–5. PMID 19580174. 
  3. ^ Childs, Dan (May 16, 2007). "Like Implants for the Arms: Synthol Lures Bodybuilders: Risky Injections Mean Massive Muscles for Users". ABC News. Retrieved March 4, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b Foggo, Daniel (May 13, 2007). "Bodybuilders puff up with 'Popeye' oil jab". Sunday Times. Retrieved March 4, 2011. 
  5. ^ Henriksen, TF; Løvenwald JB; Matzen SH (2010). "Paraffin oil injection in bodybuilders calls for preventive action". Ugeskrift for Lægerer (in Danish). 172 (3): 219–20. PMID 20089216. 
  6. ^ a b Iversen, Line; Asja Lemcke; Mikael Bitsch; Tonny Karlsmark (2008). "Compression Bandage as Treatment for Ulcers Induced by Intramuscular Self-injection of Paraffin Oil". Acta Derm Venereol. 89 (2): 196doi=10.2340/00015555-0583. 
  7. ^ Schaefer, N. "Muscle enhancement using intramuscular injections of oil in bodybuilding: review on epidemiology, complications, clinical evaluation and treatment". European Surgery. 44: 109–115. doi:10.1007/s10353-011-0033-z. 
  8. ^ Darsow, Ulf; Harald Bruckbauer; Wolf-Ingo Worret; Heidelore Hofmann; Johannes Ring (2000). "Subcutaneous oleomas induced by self-injection of sesame seed oil for muscle augmentation". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 42 (2): 292–294. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(00)90144-0. PMID 10642691. 
  9. ^ Schäfer, C.N.; H. Guldager; H. L. Jørgensen (2011). "Multi-Organ Dysfunction in Bodybuilding Possibly Caused by Prolonged Hypercalcemia due to Multi-Substance Abuse: Case Report and Review of Literature". Int J Sports Med. 32 (1): 60–65. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1267200. PMID 21072745. 
  10. ^ Koopman, M; C. Richter; R. J. M. Parren; M. Janssen (2005). "Bodybuilding, sesame oil and vasculitis". Rheumatology. Oxford Journals. 44 (9): 1135. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keh712. PMID 16113147.