From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

431 Air Demonstration Squadron
431e Escadron de démonstration aérienne  (French)
No. 431 Squadron RCAF badge.jpg
Active25 June 1971 – present (as Snowbirds)
1 April 1978 – present (as 431 Air Demonstration Squadron)
CountryCanada Canada
BranchCanada Royal Canadian Air Force
RoleAerobatic flight demonstration team
Size80 Canadian Forces personnel full time
24 personnel in the show team
Part of15 Wing Moose Jaw
Garrison/HQCFB Moose Jaw
Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada
Motto(s)Mohawk: The Hatiten Ronteriios, lit.'Warriors of the air'
ColorsWhite and red Edit this at Wikidata
Commanding OfficerLCol Denis Bandet[1]
Snowbirds logo.png
Aircraft flown
Trainer11 CT-114 Tutors

The Snowbirds, officially known as 431 Air Demonstration Squadron (French: 431e Escadron de démonstration aérienne), are the military aerobatics or air show flight demonstration team of the Royal Canadian Air Force. The team is based at 15 Wing Moose Jaw near Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. The Snowbirds' official purpose is to "demonstrate the skill, professionalism, and teamwork of Canadian Forces personnel".[2] The Snowbirds are the first Canadian air demonstration team to be designated as a squadron.[3]

The show team flies 11 CT-114 Tutors: nine for aerobatic performances, including two solo aircraft, and two spares, flown by the team coordinators. Additionally, 13 are maintained in storage.[4][5][6] Approximately 80 Canadian Forces personnel work with the squadron full-time; 24 personnel are in the show team that travels during the show season. The Snowbirds are the only major military aerobatics team that operates without a support aircraft.[7]

The Snowbirds continue the flying demonstration tradition of previous Canadian air force aerobatic teams, which include the Siskins, the Blue Devils, the Golden Hawks, and the Golden Centennaires.

Squadron history[edit]

Second World War[edit]

Although 431 Air Demonstration Squadron was formed in 1978, its history truly began during the Second World War when, as part of the Commonwealth contribution to aircrew for the war in Europe, 431 (Iroquois) Squadron Royal Canadian Air Force was created under the control of RAF Bomber Command.[8]

Number 431 Squadron formed on 11 November 1942, at RAF Burn (in North Yorkshire), flying Wellington B.X medium bombers with No. 4 Group RAF Bomber Command. The squadron moved to RAF Tholthorpe in mid-1943 as part of the move to bring all RCAF squadrons into one operational groupNo. 6 Group RCAF – and converted to Halifax B.V four-engined heavy bombers. In December 1943 the squadron moved to RAF Croft where it was re-equipped with Halifax IIIs and later, Lancaster B.X aircraft. The squadron moved to RCAF Station Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, after the war, disbanding there on 5 September 1945.

Battle honours[edit]

Tutor prototype on display at Southport Aerospace, Manitoba in Golden Centennaires livery
  • Baltic, 1943–44
  • Fortress Europe, 1943–44
  • France and Germany, 1944–45
  • Biscay Ports, 1943–44
  • Ruhr, 1943–1945
  • Berlin, 1943–44
  • German ports, 1943–1945
  • Normandy, 1944
  • Rhine
  • Biscay, 1943–44


Squadron re-formed[edit]

No. 431 (Fighter) Squadron re-formed at RCAF Station Bagotville on 18 January 1954, using the new Canadair Sabre. The squadron was formed on a temporary basis until there were enough new CF-100s available to fulfill RCAF squadron needs. No. 431's duties included aerial combat training and displaying the capabilities of jet operations to the public at air shows, the largest being Operation Prairie Pacific: a 50-minute exhibition with aircraft from several squadrons that travelled to selected locations across western Canada. The team from No. 431 Squadron consisted of four Sabres and a solo aircraft. This was the first Sabre team to be authorized to perform formation aerobatics in Canada.[9] The unit was disbanded on 1 October 1954.

CT-114 Tutor of the Snowbirds
Snowbirds at an airshow

2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School Formation Team[edit]

In 1969, Colonel O.B. Philp, base commander of CFB Moose Jaw and former leader of the defunct Golden Centennaires aerobatic team, considered using several of the leftover Golden Centennaire CT-114 Tutor aircraft for another team.[10] These Tutors were still fitted for aerobatic flying and, because of some minor corrosion, had been painted with white anti-corrosive paint. Philp, at this point, did not receive approval to form the new team; however, approval had been given for single Tutors to provide simple flypasts at local football games. To further the cause of an aerobatic team, Philp began informal enhanced formation practice for the instructors at 2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School with the aim of providing multi-aircraft flypasts at special events. In 1970, four-aircraft formations began providing flypasts at fairs and festivals, as well as Armed Forces Day at CFB Moose Jaw. In July 1970, a white Tutor was introduced to the formation for flypasts. Four white Tutors were finally flown together at the Abbotsford Air Show, followed by a flypast in Winnipeg. Known as the "2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School Formation Team", or informally as the "Tutor Whites", the team grew in size to seven aircraft in 1971 using eleven pilots, and gradually gained recognition. Formation flypasts were replaced with more complicated manoeuvres, and more aircraft were added as the team matured.

New name and squadron reactivation[edit]

A contest to give the air demonstration team a formal name was held at Bushell Park Elementary School at CFB Moose Jaw, and resulted in the name "Snowbirds".[11] The name reflected the aircraft's distinctive mostly-white paint scheme used at the time, connoted grace and beauty and was clearly linked to its Canadian origins. The name was formally adopted on 25 June 1971. The Snowbirds were officially authorized to be designated the "Canadian Forces Air Demonstration Team" on 15 January 1975. The team was formed into its own squadron by reactivating 431 Squadron (renamed 431 Air Demonstration Squadron) on 1 April 1978.

Show routine[edit]

Snowbird solos performing head on cross manoeuver at National Capital Air Show, Ottawa, 1994
The Snowbirds flying their 1000th official show at CFB Edmonton (Namao), 20 May 1990. Coloured smoke was used during major performances that year.
Snowbirds perform a line abreast pitch-over at Wings 'n Wheels Air Show 2007, St. Thomas, Ontario
A Snowbird CT-114 on display at the Canadian National Exhibition, 2008

Formations and manoeuvres are designed each season by the team, and must be approved by the Canadian Forces, Transport Canada and the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to ensure safety guidelines are complied with. FAA approval is necessary since the team performs in the United States.

Three aerobatic shows are designed: a high show flown when weather is ideal, a low show and a flat show. The latter two are flown where some manoeuvres are not permitted because of cloud. A non-aerobatic show, or flypast, is also flown. Manoeuvres are arranged from those selected from the Standard Manoeuvre Manual.[12] Some elements of the show are passed down from one season to the next. These include the Canada burst, heart, downward bomb burst, solo head on crosses, and their signature nine-abreast exit. Training occurs over several months. Once manoeuvres are mastered and the team is comfortable with the routine, the Snowbirds deploy to CFB Comox for specialized training. After approvals are obtained, an "acceptance show" is performed at Moose Jaw to allow representatives from the three approving agencies to see a live performance. The team will go on to perform shows throughout North America from May to October. The last show is performed at Moose Jaw.

Pilots typically stay with the Snowbirds for a maximum of three years, and one third of the pilots are replaced each year. Replacing pilots this way allows experienced members to train the new team members, which ensures that the Snowbirds' routines are consistent.[13]

The Snowbirds were the first aerobatic team in the world to use music in their show, and music is often used with live commentary from the performing pilots.[14]

The Snowbirds fly at speeds between 100 knots (190 km/h) and 320 knots (590 km/h), with a separation between aircraft of 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) in many of the formations. When two aircraft perform head-on passes, they aim to be about 10 metres (33 ft) apart.[15]

Due to crashes in October 2019 and May 2020, restrictions will be placed on shows beginning in 2021. To give pilots "more time to react", restrictions will be placed on altitude and speed, and there will be new rules about the minimum runway length permitted for Snowbird operations. Maintenance and inspections on the Tutors will also be increased.[16]

Awards, honours, and ambassadorships[edit]

  • In 1982, Canada Post released a 17¢ stamp of an inverted Snowbird No. 5 with the airframe number 114155.
  • On 8 June 1994, the Snowbirds were awarded the 1994 Belt of Orion Award for Excellence by Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame.
  • On 16 October 1999, the squadron was presented their squadron colour for 25 years of service. During the same ceremony the team was presented the 1999 Golden Hawks Award by the Air Force Association of Canada for outstanding performance in the field of Canadian military aviation.
  • In 2002, the Snowbirds were named ambassadors of the Ch.i.l.d. Foundation (Children with Intestinal and Liver Disorders Foundation).
  • On 28 June 2006, Canada Post released two domestic rate (51¢) stamps to commemorate the 35th anniversary of the team. The Royal Canadian Mint jointly released a $5 silver commemorative coin.

Notable performances[edit]

  • The first performance of the team with the new name of "Snowbirds" was on 11 July 1971 at their home base of CFB Moose Jaw during the Homecoming '71 Air Show.[17]
  • The first performance of the Snowbirds in a foreign country occurred on 27 November 1971 at Williams Air Force Base near Phoenix, Arizona.[18]
  • The first formal public performance that included opposing solos was flown at Yellowknife on 13 May 1972.[19]
  • The air show at Inuvik, North West Territories, in 1974 was the first time that an aerobatic team had performed at midnight (daylight conditions north of the Arctic Circle).[20]
  • The first official air show performed by the Snowbirds as 431 (Air Demonstration) Squadron was on 28 April 1978 at Royal Roads Military College, Victoria, British Columbia.[2]
  • The opening ceremonies at the Calgary 1988 Winter Olympics was the first time the Snowbirds used coloured smoke. The colours represented the five colours of the Olympic rings.[21]
  • In 1990, red smoke was incorporated into the Snowbirds' routine at major performances to commemorate the team's 20th anniversary and the silver anniversary of the Canadian flag.[22]
  • The Snowbirds' 1000th official air show was performed on 20 May 1990 at CFB Edmonton (Namao).[2]
  • The team performed for the first time outside of Canada and the United States in October 1993 at Zapopan Military Air Base near Guadalajara, Mexico.[23]

Notable staff[edit]

  • Lois Boyle (1932–2012): in her role as a civilian senior administrative assistant to several base commanders of CFB Moose Jaw, Boyle was closely involved in the birth of the Snowbirds and also helping them mature into the 1980s. For her years of dedication and support to the team she earned the title 'Mother of the Snowbirds', and her funeral ceremony was marked with an honorary flyover by seven Snowbird jets.[24]

Accidents and incidents[edit]


Since the Snowbirds' first show in July 1971, there have been several incidents involving damage to airplanes, loss of airplanes, and loss of life. Below is a list of notable incidents only. There are other incidents, some involving loss of aircraft, that are not listed below.

Date Location Reason Casualties Damage
10 June 1972 CFB Trenton, Ontario wingtip collision[25] 1 fatality plane crashed
14 July 1973 Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan bird strike caused engine stall[26] back injuries plane crashed
16 July 1977 Paine Field, Washington collision during formation change[27][28] none 2 planes crashed
3 May 1978 Grande Prairie, Alberta horizontal stabilizer failed[29] 1 fatality plane crashed
17 June 1986 Carmichael, Saskatchewan midair collision[30] minor injuries plane crashed
3 September 1989 Toronto, Ontario midair collision[31] 1 fatality 2 planes crashed
26 February 1991 Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan crashed during flight[32] no serious injuries plane crashed
14 August 1992 Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan failed engine bearing[32] none plane crashed
22 October 1992 Bagotville, Quebec midair collision[32] none 2 planes crashed
21 March 1994 Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan engine failure[32] minor injuries plane crash
24 September 1995 Point Mugu, California three planes collided with birds[33] none planes damaged
7 June 1997 Glens Falls, New York touched wings none planes damaged
10 December 1998 Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan midair collision[34] 1 fatality plane crashed
27 February 1999 Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan nose gear collapsed on landing[35] none plane damage
4 September 2000 Toronto, Ontario planes touched[36] none plane damage
10 April 2001 Comox, British Columbia nose & wing landing gear failed[37] none plane damage
21 June 2001 near London, Ontario midair collision serious injuries[38] plane crashed
10 December 2004 Mossbank, Saskatchewan midair collision[39] 1 fatality 2 planes crashed
24 August 2005 near Thunder Bay, Ontario engine failure[40][41] minor injuries plane crashed
18 May 2007 near Great Falls, Montana restraining strap malfunction[42] 1 fatality plane crashed
9 October 2008 near Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan pilot error[43][44] 2 fatalities plane crashed
1 March 2011 Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan landed with gear up[45] none plane damage
13 October 2019 Brooks, Georgia engine fuel delivery system failure[46][47] minor injuries plane crashed
17 May 2020 Kamloops, British Columbia bird strike, compressor stall, aerodynamic stall[48] 1 fatality, 1 injured[49] plane crashed


Snowbird aircraft have been involved in several accidents, resulting in the deaths of seven pilots and two passengers and the loss of several aircraft. One pilot, Captain Wes Mackay, was killed in an automobile accident after a performance in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, in 1988.[50] The RCAF commented: "... there is risk associated with formation flying. Flying by its very nature has an inherent element of risk. Eight Snowbird pilots have lost their lives in the performance of their duty. We remember them."[51]

  • 10 June 1972: Solo Captain Lloyd Waterer died after a wingtip collision with the other solo aircraft while performing an opposing solo manoeuvre at the Trenton Air Show at CFB Trenton, Ontario.[25]
  • 3 May 1978: Captain Gordon de Jong died at an air show in Grande Prairie, Alberta. The horizontal stabilizer failed, rendering the aircraft uncontrollable. Although pilot ejection was initiated, it was not successful.[29]
  • 3 September 1989: Captain Shane Antaya died after a midair collision during a demonstration at the Canadian International Air Show during the CNE in Toronto, Ontario, when his Tutor crashed into Lake Ontario. During the same accident, team commander Major Dan Dempsey safely ejected from his aircraft.[31]
  • 10 December 1998: Captain Michael VandenBos died in a midair collision during training near Moose Jaw.[34]
  • 10 December 2004: Captain Miles Selby died in a midair collision during training near Mossbank, Saskatchewan, while practising the co-loop manoeuvre. The other pilot, Captain Chuck Mallett, was thrown from his destroyed aircraft while still strapped into his seat. While tumbling towards the ground, he was able to unstrap, deploy his parachute and land with only minor injuries.[39]
  • 18 May 2007: Snowbird 2, Captain Shawn McCaughey fatally crashed during practice at Malmstrom Air Force Base near Great Falls, Montana, due to a restraining strap malfunction.[42]
  • 9 October 2008: A Snowbird Tutor piloted by newly recruited team member Captain Bryan Mitchell with military photographer Sergeant Charles Senecal crashed, killing both, near the Snowbirds' home base of 15 Wing Moose Jaw while on a non-exhibition flight.[43][44]
  • 17 May 2020: A Snowbird Tutor crashed in Kamloops, British Columbia, during a cross-country tour called "Operation Inspiration", intended to "salute Canadians doing their part to fight the spread of COVID-19."[52][53] Unit public affairs officer, Captain Jennifer Casey, died. The pilot, Captain Richard MacDougall, sustained serious injuries.[54][49]

Aircraft replacement[edit]

Due to the age of the Tutors (developed in the 1950s, first flown in 1960, and accepted by the RCAF in 1963[55][56]), a 2003 Department of National Defence study recommended that the procurement process to replace the aircraft should begin immediately so the aircraft could be retired by 2010 because of obsolescence issues that would affect the aircraft’s viability.[57] Some concerns include outdated ejection seats and antiquated avionics.[58][59] There has also been criticism about the aircraft not being representative of a modern air force.[59] A 2008 review recommended that the Tutors' life could be extended to 2020 because of cost concerns related to purchasing new aircraft.[60] A 2015 report called "CT-114 Life Extension Beyond 2020", outlined planned upgrades to extend the life of the Tutor beyond 2020. These planned upgrades included replacing the ejection seats and wing components, and updating the brakes.[61] A further initiative to extend the life of the aircraft from 2020 to 2030 has been implemented by the RCAF. An April 2018 RCAF document mentioned that until a decision is made on replacement, the Snowbird Tutors will receive modernized avionics to comply with regulations. The new avionics will permit the team to continue flying in North America and allow the Tutors to fly until 2030. Upgrading work will begin in 2022.[60]

Notwithstanding any upgrades, the Government of Canada plans to replace the Tutors with new aircraft between 2026 and 2035, with a preliminary estimated cost of $500 million to $1.5 billion. Official sources were quoted: "The chosen platform must be configurable to the 431 (AD) Squadron standard, including a smoke system, luggage capability and a unique paint scheme. The platform must also be interchangeable with the training fleet to ensure the hard demands of show performances can be distributed throughout the aircraft fleet."[62] The objective of the Snowbird Aircraft Replacement Project is "to satisfy the operational requirement to provide the mandated Government of Canada aerobatic air demonstration capability to Canadian and North American audiences."[62]



  1. ^ R. Palmer, Moosejaw Today. "Snowbirds hold private change of command ceremony". Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Dempsey 2002, p. 567.
  3. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 718.
  4. ^ Canadian Armed Forces (29 July 2019). "CT-114 Tutor". Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  5. ^ Canadian Armed Forces (13 October 2019). "CT1140071 Tutor - From the investigator". Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  6. ^ Canadian Armed Forces (17 May 2020). "One Canadian Military Member Killed One Injured in CF Snowbirds Accident". Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  7. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 659.
  8. ^ "Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation." Archived 2009-08-23 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 20 May 2011.
  9. ^ Dempsey 2002, pp.91-95.
  10. ^ "Member Profiles". Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Snowbirds – Full History." Archived 2013-05-22 at the Wayback Machine RCAF. Retrieved: 15 March 2013.
  12. ^ "Snowbirds safety incident a factor behind air show cancellations". The Star, 18 May 2017 Retrieved: August 28, 2017
  13. ^ "FAQ: Snowbirds." Government of Canada, Royal Canadian Air Force, Retrieved: 4 September 2017
  14. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 643.
  15. ^ "FAQ: Snowbirds." Government of Canada, Royal Canadian Air Force, 20 July 2015. Retrieved: 12 August 2015.
  16. ^ Military lifts order grounding Snowbirds team, some restrictions still in place. Global News. August 24, 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020
  17. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 540.
  18. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 538
  19. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 545.
  20. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 552.
  21. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 597.
  22. ^ Dempsey 2002, pp. 605, 606.
  23. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 615.
  24. ^ Ewing-Weisz (2012).
  25. ^ a b Dempsey 2002, p. 546.
  26. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 550.
  27. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 563.
  28. ^ "Two pilots rescued after jets collide." Spokesman Review, Spokane, Washington, July 17, 1977. Retrieved: 23 April 2014
  29. ^ a b Dempsey 2002, p. 569.
  30. ^ "Snowbirds collide n mid-air; pilots escape serious injury." Ottawa Citizen, 18 June 1986. Retrieved: 22 November 2015.
  31. ^ a b Dempsey 2002, p. 602.
  32. ^ a b c d "A History of Snowbird Crashes." Canwest News Service. Retrieved: 23 April 2014.
  33. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 622.
  34. ^ a b "Snowbird crash, December 10, 1998 – investigation update." Archived June 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, 7 June 2010. Retrieved: 16 June 2010.
  35. ^ "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report:CT114019 Tutor.", 27 February 1999. Retrieved: 7 April 2010. Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report:CT114172 Tutor and CT114006 Tutor.", 24 September 2000. Retrieved: 17 March 2014
  37. ^ "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report:CT114142 Tutor.", 10 April 2001. Retrieved: 17 March 2014.
  38. ^ [1] CBC News, 26 June 2001. Retrieved: 17 may 2020.
  39. ^ a b "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report: CT114173 / CT114064 Tutor". 10 December 2004. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  40. ^ "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report: CT114120 Tutor.", 24 August 2005. Retrieved: 17 March 2014.
  41. ^ Bridges, Holly. "Snowbird safely ejects, Flight Safety investigation continues, p. 12." Maple Leaf, Vol 8., No. 31. 8 September 2005 via Retrieved: 16 June 2010.
  42. ^ a b "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report: CT114159 Tutor.", 18 May 2007. Retrieved: 17 March 2014.
  43. ^ a b "CBC News Story." CBC, 10 October 2008. Retrieved: 13 October 2008.
  44. ^ a b "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report." Retrieved: 7 January 2017.
  45. ^ "Snowbirds jet makes crash landing in Moose Jaw". CTV Regina. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  46. ^ Official Accident Report in Canadian Forces Snowbird October 2019 Crash Released
  47. ^ "Global News Story." Global News, 5 December 2019. Retrieved: 17 May 2020.
  48. ^ "Bird strike blamed in fatal crash of Canadian military Snowbird jet". CBC News. 29 March 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  49. ^ a b Ross, Andrea (16 May 2020). "Canadian Forces Snowbirds jet crashes in Kamloops, B.C., killing 1, injuring another". CBC News. Archived from the original on 18 May 2020. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  50. ^ "Car Crash Kills Canadian Pilot, Injures Two Others" (Press release). AP News. 25 October 1988. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  51. ^ "Snowbirds – Tributes." Royal Canadian Air Force, Government of Canada, 9 February 2015. Retrieved: 12 August 2015.
  52. ^ Kelly, Alanna (17 May 2020). "Snowbirds plane crashes near Kamloops, B.C." CTV News. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  53. ^ "Canadian Forces Snowbirds launch cross-Canada tour" (Press release). Royal Canadian Air Force. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  54. ^ Petruk, Tim (17 May 2020). "With video: Snowbird jet crashes into Kamloops house". Kamloops This Week. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  55. ^ Canadair CT-114 Tutor Retrieved 29 May 2020
  56. ^ Milberry 1984, p. 346.
  57. ^ Replace Snowbird Jets ‘Immediately,’ DND Told in 2003. The Globe and Mail. April 25, 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2020
  58. ^ Snowbirds were waiting for new ejection seats before deadly crash. Now DND won’t say if gear was replaced. The Star. May 29, 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  59. ^ a b Dempsey 2002, p. 694
  60. ^ a b Aircraft used by Snowbirds aerobatic team, on the go since 1963, will be kept flying until 2030. Saskatoon StarPhoenix. May 13, 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2018
  61. ^ CT-114 Life Extension Beyond 2020 (archived). National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces. Retrieved 30 May 2020
  62. ^ a b "Snowbird Aircraft Replacement Project." Government of Canada, 12 August 2015. Retrieved: 12 March 2015.


  • Dempsey, Daniel V. A Tradition of Excellence: Canada's Airshow Team Heritage. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: High Flight Enterprises, 2002. ISBN 0-9687817-0-5.
  • Ewing-Weisz, Chris. "Lois Boyle was the ‘Mother of the Snowbirds’." The Globe and Mail, 17 January 2012, p. S8. Published online: 16 January 2012. Retrieved: 23 January 2012.
  • Fast, Beverley G. Snowbirds: Flying High, Canada's Snowbirds Celebrate 25 Years. Saskatoon, SK: Lapel Marketing & Associates Inc., 1995. ISBN 0969932707.
  • Milberry, Larry. Canada's Air Force At War And Peace, Volume 3. Toronto, ON: CANAV Books, 2000. ISBN 0-921022-12-3.
  • Milberry, Larry, ed. Sixty Years—The RCAF and CF Air Command 1924–1984. Toronto: Canav Books, 1984. ISBN 0-9690703-4-9.
  • Mummery, Robert. Snowbirds: Canada's Ambassadors of the Sky. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Reidmore Books, 1984. ISBN 0-919091-37-7.
  • Rycquart, Barbara. The Snowbirds Story. London, Ontario, Canada: Third Eye, 1987. ISBN 0-919581-41-2.
  • Sroka, Mike. Snowbirds: Behind The Scenes With Canada's Air Demonstration Team. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Fifth House Publishers, 2006. ISBN 1-894856-86-4.

External links[edit]