Solanki dynasty

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This article is about dynasty which ruled Gujarat. For clan name, see Solanki (clan).
Solanki Dynasty

c. 960–1243
Capital Anhilwad (modern Patan, Gujarat
Government Monarchy
History
 -  Established c. 960
 -  Disestablished 1243

The Solanki dynasty once ruled parts of what is now Gujarat, India. Gujarat was a major center of Indian Ocean trade, and their capital at Anhilwara (modern Patan, Gujarat) was one of the largest cities in India, with population estimated at 100,000 in the year 1000. In 1026, the temple complex of Somnath in Gujarat was destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni. After 1243, the Solankis lost control of Gujarat to their feudatories, of whom the Vaghela dynasty of Dholka came to dominate Gujarat. In 1292, the Vaghelas became tributaries of the Seuna dynasty of Devagiri in the Deccan Plateau.

Solanki rule[edit]

Bhimdev I[edit]

Sun Temple of Modhera built by Bhimdev I

Bhimdev I succeeded Mulraj. He built Sun Temple, of Modhera. His wife Udaymati built the Rani ki vav step-well in his memory.

The guardian family deity of the Solanki was Somnath at Prabhas. It was during the Solanki's rule that the scared shrine was sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni.

Karandev I[edit]

Bhimdev's successor Karandev I defeated a Bhil chieftain and founded Karnavati which is now known as Ahmedabad. Karandev married Minaldevi by whom he begot Siddhraj Jaisinh.

Siddharaj Jaisinh[edit]

Siddharaj Jaisinh succeeded Karandev I and ruled for 47 years starting in 1094. Hemachandra, a Jain monk, rose to prominence and had good relation with the king. Apart from Saurashtra and Kutch, Jaysinh also conquered Malwa. One of the favourite legends of the Gujarat bards is woven around the siege of Junagadh by Jaysinh. The fort was ultimately captured by him along with Ranakdevi, wife of the Chudasama ruler Ra Khengar. Ranakdevi preferred to commit sati rather than remarry Jaisinh and he was persuaded to allow her to burn herself on a pyre at Wadhwan. Ranakdevi Temple still stands in Wadhwan at the site of her death.[citation needed]

Kumarpal[edit]

Siddhraj's successor Kumarpal's reign lasted for 31 years from 1143 to 1174 AD. He too had good relationship with Hemchandracharya and he propagated Jainism during his rule in Gujarat. He rebuilt Somnath temple. During Kumarpal's reign, Gujarat's prosperity was at its peak.

Bal Mulraj[edit]

Bal Mulraj successfully repelled the incursions of Mahmud of Ghor who had the ambition of repeating the act performed by Mahmud Ghazni.

Successor[edit]

Main article: Vaghela dynasty

After the fall of Solanki rule, the Hindu Vaghela dynasty, who had been in the service of the Solankis, established a short-lived (76 years) but powerful dynasty. The rulers of this dynasty were responsible for consolidating the stabilising the prosperity of Gujarat after the fall of the Solankis but the last of them, Karandev, was defeated and overthrown by Alauddin Khilji in 1297. With his defeat, Gujarat became part of the Delhi Sultanate.[citation needed]

References[edit]