|Pionus t. tumultuosus|
The speckle-faced parrot (Pionus tumultuosus) is a South American species of parrot from the humid Andean forests from Colombia, through Ecuador and Peru, to Bolivia. It is sometimes split into two species, in which case the southern Pionus tumultuosus retains the common name speckle-faced parrot or is renamed plum-crowned parrot or plum-crowned pionus, while the northern Pionus seniloides is referred to as the white-capped parrot or white-headed pionus (leading to easy confusion with Pionus senilis). The two were originally described as separate species, are morphologically distinctive, and there is no evidence of intergradation, but this in itself is not remarkable, as their distributions are separated by a gap of approx. 150 km.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Pionus tumultuosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Proposal to split Pionus seniloides (Massena & Souancé,1854) from Pionus tumultuosus (Tschudi, 1844)". The Louisiana Museum of Natural History. 29 January 2004. Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
- "White-headed Pionus". Pionus Breeders Association. 29 January 2004. Archived from the original on 19 July 2002. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
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