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Spongin, a modified type of collagen protein, forms the fibrous skeleton of most organisms among the phylum Porifera, the sponges. It is secreted by sponge cells known as spongocytes.[1]

Spongin gives a sponge its flexibility. True spongin is found only in members of the class Demospongiae.[2]

Research directions[edit]

Use in the removal of phenolic compounds from wastewater[edit]

Researchers have found spongin to be useful in the photocatalytic degradation and removal of bisphenols (such as BPA) in wastewater. A heterogeneous catalyst consisting of a spongin scaffold for iron phthalocyanine (SFe) in conjunction with peroxide and UV radiation has been shown to remove phenolic wastes more quickly and efficiently than conventional methods.[3] Other research using spongin scaffolds for the immobilization of Trametes versicolor Laccase has shown similar results in phenol degradation.[4]


  1. ^ Anderson, D. (2001). Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Brusca, R.; Brusca, G. (2003). Invertebrate Zoology. Sinauer Associates. p. 191.
  3. ^ Norman, Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Ehrlich, and Jesionowski. "Iron(III) Phthalocyanine Supported on a Spongin Scaffold as an Advanced Photocatalyst in a Highly Efficient Removal Process of Halophenols and Bisphenol A." Journal of Hazardous Materials 347 (2018): 78-88. Web.
  4. ^ Zdarta, Antecka, Frankowski, Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Ehrlich, and Jesionowski. "The Effect of Operational Parameters on the Biodegradation of Bisphenols by Trametes Versicolor Laccase Immobilized on Hippospongia Communis Spongin Scaffolds." Science of the Total Environment 615 (2018): 784-95. Web.