St. Nicholas Church (Malá Strana)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from St. Nicholas Church (Lesser Town))
Jump to: navigation, search
St Nicholas Church
The Church of Saint Nicholas
Kostel svatého Mikuláše
50°5′16.39″N 14°24′11.58″E / 50.0878861°N 14.4032167°E / 50.0878861; 14.4032167
Location Prague
Country Czech Republic
Denomination Roman Catholic
Website Website of the Church
History
Founded 1704
Architecture
Status Active
Functional status Parish Church
Architect(s) Christoph Dientzenhofer
Architectural type Basilica
Style Baroque
Completed 1755
Specifications
Height 49 meters
Dome height (outer) 79 meters
Dome diameter (outer) 20 meters
Spire height 79 meters
Administration
Parish Lesser Town of Prague
Archdiocese Prague

The Church of Saint Nicholas (Czech: Kostel svatého Mikuláše) is a Baroque church in the Lesser Town of Prague. It was built between 1704-1755 on the site where formerly a Gothic church from the 13th century stood, which was also dedicated to Saint Nicholas.

History[edit]

The original Gothic Parish church of Saint Nicholasstood on the site of the present church which dated from the 13th century. In the second half of the 17th century the Jesuits decided to build a new church designed by Giovanni Domenico Orsi. A partial impression of the original planned appearance of the church at the time the Jesuits chose the initial plans by Giovanni Domenico Orsi in 1673 and laid the foundation stone is provided by the Chapel of St Barbara, which was built first so that mass could be celebrated. The church was built in two stages during the 18th century. From 1703 till 1711 the west façade, the choir, the Chapels of St Barbara and St Anne were built.

The new plans involved an intricate geometrical system of interconnected cylinders with a central dome above the transept. The massive nave with side chapels and an undulating vault based on a system of intersecting ellipsoids was apparently built by Christoph Dientzenhofer. The pillars between the wide spans of the arcade supporting the triforium were meant to maximize the dynamic effect of the church. The chancel and its characteristic copper cupola were built in 1737-1752, this time using plans by Christoph's son, Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer.

In 1752, after the death Dientzehofer in 1751, the construction of the church tower was completed. During the years the church continued to expand its interior beauty. Following the abolition of the Jesuit Order by Pope Clement XIV, St Nicholas became the main parish church of the Lesser Town in 1775.

During the communist era the church tower was used as an observatory for State Security since from the tower it was possible to keep watch on the American and Yugoslav embassies respectively and the access route to the West German embassy.\

Decoration[edit]

It has been described as "the most impressive example of Prague Baroque"[1] and "without doubt the greatest Baroque church in Prague and the Dientzenhofers' supreme achievement".[2]

Interior of the dome

The church excels not only in the architecture, but also in the decoration, mainly with the frescos by Jan Lukas Kracker and a fresco inside the 70 m high dome by František Xaver Palko. The interior is further decorated with sculptures by František Ignác Platzer. The Baroque organ has over 4,000 pipes up to six metres in length and was played by Mozart in 1787. Mozart's spectacular masterpiece, Mass in C, was first performed in the Church of Saint Nicholas shortly after his visit.[3][4]

The 79 m tall belfry is directly connected with the church’s massive dome. The belfry with great panoramic view, was unlike the church completed in Rococo forms in 1751-1756 by Anselmo Lurago.

Services[edit]

The parish church celebrates a weekly mass every Sunday at 8.30pm.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Neil Wilson, Mark Baker. Prague. 9th edition. Lonely Planet, 2010. ISBN 9781741796681. Page 9.
  2. ^ Jack Messenger, Brigitte Lee. Prague. 5th edition. New Holland Publishers, 2008. Page 51.
  3. ^ Norman Davies, Europe: A History, A Panorama of Europe, East and West, From the Ice-Age to the Cold War, From the Urals to Gibraltar (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), 671.
  4. ^ According to his widow, Constanze, Mozart loved the architecture of Prague, with its Baroque churches like St. Nicholas - he likewise praised the Orchestra of Prague, calling it his very "own", and was adored by the citizens of Prague. Constanze remarked that, "the Prague public admired and worshiped him wholeheartedly; this consoled Mozart for some of the slights he had received in Salzburg and Vienna." See: Heinz Gärtner, Constanze Mozart: After the Requiem, trans. Reinhard G. Pauly (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1991), 67.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 50°5′16.39″N 14°24′11.58″E / 50.0878861°N 14.4032167°E / 50.0878861; 14.4032167