State censuses in the United States

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Throughout U.S. history, various U.S. states conducted their own censuses. These censuses were often conducted every ten years, in years ending with a five to complement the U.S. federal census (which is carried out in years that end with zero). Also, some of these censuses were conducted in U.S. states while they were still U.S. territories (before they became U.S. states).

⊗ marks the point when statehood was attained.

State Dates and details of censuses
Alabama 1818,⊗ 1820, 1821, 1823, 1850, 1855, 1866, and 1907.[1][2]
Alaska 1870, 1878, 1879, 1881, 1885, 1887, 1890–1895, 1904–1907, 1914, and 1917⊗.[1][2]
Arizona 1866, 1867, 1869, 1872, 1874, 1876, 1880, and 1882⊗.[1][2]
Arkansas 1823, 1829⊗, 1865, and 1911.[1][2]
California 1788, 1790, 1796, 1797–1798, 1816, 1836, 1844,⊗ 1852.[1] California's first five censuses were conducted back when it was under Spanish rule whereas its sixth and seventh censuses were conducted when California was under Mexican rule.[3][2]
Colorado 1885, 1861⊗, and 1866.[1][2]
Connecticut 1756, 1761, 1774, and 1782⊗[4][page needed][2]
Delaware 1782⊗[1][2]
District of Columbia 1803, 1867, and 1878.[1]
Florida 1825⊗, 1855, 1866, 1867, 1868, 1875, 1885, 1895, 1935, and 1945.[1][2]
Georgia 1798, 1800, 1810, 1827, 1834, 1838, 1845, 1852, 1853, 1859, 1865, and 1879.[1][2]
Hawaii The Kingdom of Hawaii conducted censuses in 1832, 1836, 1850, 1853, 1860, 1866, 1872, 1878, 1884 and 1890. The Republic of Hawaii conducted a census in 1896.[1][5][page needed] The Territory of Hawaii (1898-1959) did not conduct any censuses, nor has the State of Hawaii.[5][page needed]
Idaho None known.[1]
Illinois 1810⊗, 1818, 1820, 1825, 1830, 1835, 1840, 1845, 1855, and 1865.[1][2]
Indiana 1807⊗, 1853, 1857, 1871, 1877, 1883, 1889, 1901, 1913, 1919, and 1931.[1][2]
Iowa 1836, 1838, 1844⊗, 1846, 1847, 1849, 1851, 1852, 1854, 1856, 1885, 1895, 1905, 1915, and 1925.[1][2]
Kansas 1855⊗, 1865, 1875, 1885, 1895, 1905, 1915, and 1925.[1][2]
Kentucky None known.[1]
Louisiana 1853 and 1858.[1]
Maine 1837.[1]
Maryland 1712, 1755,[4][page needed] 1776, and 1778⊗[1][2]
Massachusetts conducted censuses in 1764–1765, 1776, 1784,[4][page needed] 1855, 1865,[1] 1875,[6] 1885,[7] 1895,[8] 1905,[9] 1915,[10] 1925,[11] 1935, 1945, 1955, 1965, 1975, and 1985.[12]

The structure of Massachusetts state censuses was similar to those of U.S. federal censuses.[13]

Michigan 1837, 1845, 1854, 1864, 1874, 1884, 1888, 1894, and 1904.[1]
Minnesota 1849, 1853, 1855, 1857⊗, 1865, 1875, 1885, 1895, 1905.[1][2]
Mississippi 1801, 1805, 1808, 1810, 1816,⊗ 1818, 1820, 1822, 1823, 1824, 1825, 1830, 1833, 1837, 1840, 1841, 1845, 1850, 1853, 1860, and 1866.[1][2]
Missouri 1797, 1803, 1817, 1819⊗, 1840, 1844, 1852, 1856, 1860, 1864, 1876, and 1880.[1] Missouri's first census was conducted back when it was under Spanish rule.[2]
Montana None known.[1]
Nebraska 1854, 1855, 1856, 1865⊗, 1869, and 1885.[1][2]
Nevada 1862, 1863⊗, and 1875.[1][2]
New Hampshire 1767, 1773, 1775, and 1786⊗[4][page needed]
New Jersey 1726, 1737, 1745,[4][page needed]⊗ 1855, 1865, 1875, 1885, 1895, 1905, and 1915.[1][2]
New Mexico 1790, 1823, 1845, and 1885⊗.[1] Its first three censuses were conducted when New Mexico was still under Spanish rule.[2]
New York 1698, 1703, 1712, 1723, 1731, 1737, 1746, 1749, 1756, 1771, 1786⊗, 1790,[4][page needed] 1825, 1835, 1845, 1855, 1865, 1875, 1892, 1905, 1915, and 1925.[1][2]

Only the name of the head of household is listed in New York state censuses from 1825 to 1845.[14] Beginning in 1855, the name of every person in the household is listed.[14] The 1855 to 1875 New York state censuses asked the person for the name of the county that one was born in if one was born in New York State.[14] Also, the 1865 New York state census asked many questions about military service.[14]

New York did not conduct a census in 1885 because its Governor David B. Hill refused to support the proposed census due to its extravagance and cost.[15][16] Governor Hill objected to the idea of spending so much state money on a state census that was as extravagant as the 1880 U.S. Census.[15][16]

The 1892 New York state census is more vague, asking only for a country of birth (rather than a specific U.S. state or New York county of birth), not indicating relationships of various people to each other, and not indicating where new families begin on the census forms.[14] Indeed, the 1892 New York state census contained only seven questions — name, sex, age, color (race), country of birth, citizenship status, and occupation.[17] Meanwhile, the censuses from 1905 to 1925 asked for relationships of people to each other but also only asked for a country of birth.[14] Also, the 1925 New York state census asked for the date and place of naturalization for naturalized U.S. citizens.[14]

North Carolina 1786⊗[1][2]
North Dakota 1885, 1915, and 1925.[1]
Ohio None known.[1]
Oklahoma 1890⊗ and 1907.[1][2]
Oregon 1842, 1843, 1845, 1849, 1850, 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856, 1857, 1858⊗, 1859, 1865, 1870, 1875, 1885, 1895, and 1905.[1][2]
Pennsylvania None known.[1]
Rhode Island 1708, 1730, 1748, 1755, 1774, 1776 or 1777, 1782⊗,[4][page needed] 1865, 1875, 1885, 1905, 1915, 1925, and 1935.[1][2]
South Carolina 1825, 1839, 1869, and 1875.[1]
South Dakota 1885⊗, 1895, 1905, 1915, 1925, 1935, and 1945.[1][2]
Tennessee 1891.[1]
Texas Texas conducted a census between 1829 and 1836, back when it was still under Mexican rule.[1]
Utah 1856⊗[1]
Vermont None known.[1]
Virginia 1635, 1782,[4][page needed] 1783, 1784, 1785, and 1786.⊗[1][2]
Washington 1856, 1857, 1858, 1860, 1871, 1874, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1883, 1885, 1887⊗, 1889, 1891, 1892, and 1898.[1][2]
West Virginia None known.[1]
Wisconsin 1836, 1838, 1842, 1846, 1847⊗, 1855, 1865, 1875, 1885, 1895, and 1905.[1][2]
Wyoming 1875 and 1878⊗[1][2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw "State Censuses – History – U.S. Census Bureau". Census.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-22.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Statehood Dates". 50states.com. Retrieved 2017-09-23.
  3. ^ "Introduction-Early History of the California Coast-A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary". Nps.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-23.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "1, Population In The Colonial And Continental Periods". A Century of Population Growth (PDF). Bureau of the Census. 1909.
  5. ^ a b Thirteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1910: Statistics for Hawaii Containing Statistics of Population, Agriculture, and Manufactures for the Territory, Counties and Cities (PDF). Original from the University of Chicago: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1913.
  6. ^ "Census of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: 1875". Massachusetts. Bureau of Statistics of Labor. 2008-03-25. Retrieved 2017-09-23 – via Archive.org.
  7. ^ "Full text of "Census of Massachusetts: 1885"". 2016-10-23. Retrieved 2017-09-23 – via Archive.org.
  8. ^ "Census of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: 1895". Massachusetts. Bureau of Statistics of Labor. 2008-03-25. Retrieved 2017-09-23 – via Archive.org.
  9. ^ "Census of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1905". Massachusetts. Bureau of Statistics of Labor. 2008-03-25. Retrieved 2017-09-23 – via Archive.org.
  10. ^ "The decennial census, 1915". Massachusetts. Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2017-09-23 – via Archive.org.
  11. ^ "The decennial census, 1925". Massachusetts. Secretary of the Commonwealth. Retrieved 2017-09-23 – via Archive.org.
  12. ^ "Browsing State Census Documents by Issue Date". Archives.lib.state.ma.us. 1985-01-01. Retrieved 2017-09-23.
  13. ^ "Archives: Researching Your Family's History at the Massachusetts Archives". Sec.state.ma.us. 2008-01-01. Retrieved 2017-09-23.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "New York State Census". Frontiernet.net. Retrieved 2017-09-23.
  15. ^ a b Public Papers ... – New York (State). Governor, New York (State). Governor (1885–1892 : Hill).[full citation needed]
  16. ^ a b Peter R. Eisenstadt. The Encyclopedia of New York State.[full citation needed]
  17. ^ "1892 New York State Census". Frontiernet.net. 1996-09-07. Retrieved 2017-09-23.