Steinheim skull

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Original skull and holotype of H. steinheimensis
Replica of H. steinheimensis skull. Note that the skull's brow ridges and slope of the forehead are not visible from this front angle.

The Steinheim skull is a fossilized skull of a Homo heidelbergensis found in 1933 near Steinheim an der Murr (20 km north of Stuttgart, Germany).[1] It is estimated to be 250,000–350,000 years old. The skull is slightly flattened and has a cranial capacity from 1110–1200 cc. Others give volumes of (950), 1179±30 and 1270±10 cc.[2] Sometimes referred to as Homo steinheimensis, the original fossil is housed in the State Museum of Natural History in Stuttgart, Germany. Some believe that the Steinheim skull may have belonged to an adult female. [3]


The "primitive man of Steinheim" is a single find. The designation Steinheim skull can be seen as a mere reference to the location of the fossil, but in no way identifies with a certain taxon. The skull shows characteristics of both Homo heidelbergensis and Neanderthals. It is therefore classified by most paleoanthropologists to Homo heidelbergensis and is believed to be a transitional form of Homo heidelbergensis to Neanderthals. This has sometimes been referred to as "pre-Neanderthal.” [4] [5]The inner ear of the fossil has a feature in which Neanderthals and Homo sapiens differ. The location of the semicircular canals of the inner ear in the temporal bone of the skull base is similar to the situation in Neanderthals, while the semicircular canals of the older Homo erectus, which Homo sapiens are closer. [6]

Until the late 1980s, the fossil was sometimes referred to as Homo sapiens steinheimensis. During this time Neanderthals were also referred to as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Today, however, paleoanthropologists assume that Neanderthals and humans emerged independently from a common ancestor, usually this is called Homo erectus, and therefore as two distinct species are to be considered: Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens.

The Discovery[edit]

Prior to discovery of the Steinheim skull, in the gravel pit, were many archaeological objects such as bones of elephants, rhinos and wild horses. Therefore the archaeologists excavating the site were already sensitized to possible skeletal remains in the quarry. Fritz Berckhemer traveled on the same day of the skull's discovery and reviewed the still hidden skull in the wall. The next day, together with Max Bock, began the careful excavation. It was clear, on the basis of the shape and dimensions of the skull, that it was not a monkey, as was initially suspected. It turned out to be a human skull from the Pleistocene. The skull was roughly cleaned, hardened and plastered so it would arrive safe and sound in the Museum of Natural History.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Steinheim skull | hominin fossil". Retrieved 2015-09-04. 
  2. ^ Prossinger, Hermann; Seidler, Horst; Wicke, Lothar; Weaver, Dave; Recheis, Wolfgang; Stringer, Chris; Müller, Gerd B. (2003). "Electronic removal of encrustations inside the Steinheim cranium reveals paranasal sinus features and deformations, and provides a revised endocranial volume estimate". The Anatomical Record 273B (1): 132–42. doi:10.1002/ar.b.10022. PMID 12833273. 
  3. ^ "Homo heidelbergensis - Australian Museum". Retrieved 2015-09-04. 
  4. ^ Jean-Jacques Hublin: Die Sonderevolution der Neandertaler. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Juli 1998, Seite 56 ff.
  5. ^ a b Reinhard Ziegler: 4 Millionen Jahre Mensch. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Mai 1999, Seite 130 ff.
  6. ^ Chris Stringer: The Origin of Our Species. Penguin / Allen Lane, 2011, S. 60. ISBN 978-1846141409.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 48°58′06″N 9°16′34″E / 48.96833°N 9.27611°E / 48.96833; 9.27611