Stichodactyla helianthus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Stichodactyla helianthus
Stoichactis sp.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Order: Actiniaria
Family: Stichodactylidae
Genus: Stichodactyla
Species: S. helianthus
Binomial name
Stichodactyla helianthus
(Ellis, 1768) [1]
  • Actinia (Taractostephanus) helianthus Ellis, 1768
  • Actinia helianthus Ellis, 1768
  • Discosoma anemone (Ellis)
  • Discosoma helianthus (Ellis, 1768)
  • Stichodactylae helianthus
  • Stoichactis (Discosoma) anemone (Ellis)
  • Stoichactis anemone (Ellis)
  • Stoichactis helianthus (Ellis, 1768)

Stichodactyla helianthus is a sea anemone of the family Stichodactylidae. Helianthus stems from the Greek words ἡλιος (meaning sun), and ἀνθος, meaning flower. S. helianthus is also referred to as the 'sun anemone'. S. helianthus is a large, green, sessile, carpet-like sea anemone, from the Caribbean. It lives in shallow areas with mild to strong currents. The anemone crab (Mithraculus cinctimanus) is often associated with it, being found among the tentacles or on the column and margin of the oral disc,[2] as is the sun anemone shrimp.

S. helianthus excretes stichodactyla toxin. It is believed that it excretes toxins mainly to protect itself from the spiny lobster.[3]


  1. ^ Fautin, Daphne (2012). "Stichodactyla helianthus (Ellis, 1768)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-10-17. 
  2. ^ Colin, Patrick L. (1978). Marine Invertebrates and Plants of the Living Reef. T.F.H. Publications. p. 367. ISBN 0-86622-875-6. 
  3. ^ Norton RS, Pennington MW, Wulff H (December 2004). "Potassium channel blockade by the sea anemone toxin ShK for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases". Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (23): 3041–52. doi:10.2174/0929867043363947. PMID 15578998.