Strained silicon is a layer of silicon in which the silicon atoms are stretched beyond their normal interatomic distance. This can be accomplished by putting the layer of silicon over a substrate of silicon germanium (SiGe). As the atoms in the silicon layer align with the atoms of the underlying silicon germanium layer (which are arranged a little farther apart, with respect to those of a bulk silicon crystal), the links between the silicon atoms become stretched - thereby leading to strained silicon. Moving these silicon atoms farther apart reduces the atomic forces that interfere with the movement of electrons through the transistors and thus better mobility, resulting in better chip performance and lower energy consumption. These electrons can move 70% faster allowing strained silicon transistors to switch 35% faster.
More recent advances include deposition of strained silicon using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with metalorganics as starting sources, e.g. silicon sources (silane and dichlorosilane) and germanium sources (germane, germanium tetrachloride, and isobutylgermane).
More recent methods of inducing strain include doping the source and drain with lattice mismatched atoms such as germanium and carbon. Germanium doping of up to 20% in the P-channel MOSFET source and drain causes uniaxial compressive strain in the channel, increasing hole mobility. Carbon doping as low as 0.25% in the N-channel MOSFET source and drain causes uniaxial tensile strain in the channel, increasing electron mobility. Covering the NMOS transistor with a highly stressed silicon nitride layer is another way to create uniaxial tensile strain.
- A corporate website describing mechanically strained silicon technology
- descriptive images from IBM
- High-Performance Flexible Silicon - A new way to make bendable high-speed strained silicon.
- Designing Novel Organogermanium OMVPE Precursors for High-purity Germanium Films; Presentation at ACCGE-16, Montana, USA, July 11, 2005; Shenai-Khatkhate et al., Journal of Crystal Growth, January 25, 2006.
- Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials Devises Germanium Film Growth Process; CompoundSemi News, September 23, 2005.
- High Purity Germanium Film; III-Vs Review, September 23, 2005.
- Development of New Germanium Precursors for SiGe Epitaxy; Presentation at 210th ECS Meeting (SiGe Symposium), Cancun, Mexico, October 29, 2006.
- Safer alternative liquid germanium precursors for relaxed graded SiGe layers and strained silicon by MOVPE; Deo V. Shenai, Ronald L. DiCarlo, Michael B. Power, Artashes Amamchyan, Randall J. Goyette and Egbert Woelk; Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 298, Pages 172-175, January 7, 2007.
- Sun, Y.; Thompson, S. E.; Nishida, T. (2007). "Physics of strain effects in semiconductors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors". Journal of Applied Physics 101 (10): 104503. doi:10.1063/1.2730561. ISSN 0021-8979.
- Bedell, S.W.; Khakifirooz, A.; Sadana, D.K. (2014). "Strain scaling for CMOS". MRS Bulletin 39 (02): 131–137. doi:10.1557/mrs.2014.5. ISSN 0883-7694.