Strike of the 100,000
The Strike of the 100,000 (French: Grève des 100 000) was an 8-day strike in Belgium which took place from 10–18 May 1941 during the German occupation. It was led by Julien Lahaut, head of the Belgian Communist Party (Parti Communiste de Belgique or PCB), even though the Nazi—Soviet Pact was still in force. The object of the strike was to demand a wage increase though it was also an act of passive resistance to the German occupation.
The strike originated at the Cockerill steel works (Cockerill Fonderie) in the industrial town of Seraing, in eastern Belgium, on 10 May 1941. The date significantly marked the first anniversary of the German invasion of Belgium. News spread quickly through the Province of Liège and brought many other workers out on solidarity actions. It also spread into the industrial Province of Hainaut in the west and also to the neighbouring Limburg in Flanders. At its height it is estimated that 70,000 workers were on strike. The actions received widespread coverage in the national underground press of the Belgian Resistance and even achieved limited support from the middle and upper class who had traditionally opposed labour militancy.
In order to end the disruption, the Germans were forced to agree to a substantial wages increase of eight percent. The strike soon finished. It officially ended on 18 May. In the aftermath of the strike, the German authorities worried that a repeat could occur, arrested 400 workers in September 1942 who they believed to be planning a similar action. Further important strikes did, however, take place in Belgium in November 1942 and February 1943.
In the aftermath of the strike and the start of the German invasion of the Soviet Union (June 1941) led to the end of the limited toleration of Belgian communists. Lahaut was deported to a concentration camp in Germany and many other strikers were also incarcerated in the fortress of Huy.
A similar strike, inspired by the success of the Strike of the 100,000, took place later the same month in the French province of Pas-de-Calais (part of the same German administrative area as Belgium) which was judged by the French newspaper Le Monde in 2001 to have been one of the most spectacular acts of the French resistance. The strike, which broke out on 27 May and lasted until 9 June, brought 17,000 miners (around 80 percent of the regional total) out to protest pay and food shortages.
- Belgian Resistance,
- February strike of 1941, protesting against the German anti-Jewish measures in the Netherlands,
- 1942 Luxembourgish general strike protesting against conscription into the German army,
- Milk strike of September 1941 against food rationing in Occupied Norway.
- Gotovitch, José; Aron, Paul, eds. (2008). Dictionnaire de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale en Belgique. Brussels: André Versaille éd. pp. 220–1. ISBN 978-2-87495-001-8.
- "Evocation: Julien Lahaut et la grève des 100 000". RTBF Info. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- "La grève des mineurs du Nord-Pas-de-Calais, 27 mai-9 juin 1941". Chemins de mémoire. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Taylor, Lynne (2000). Between Resistance and Collaboration: Popular Protest in Northern France, 1940-45. Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp. 75–6. ISBN 0-333-73640-0.