Summer melt

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Summer melt is the phenomenon of prospective college students' motivation to attend college "melting" away during the summer between the end of high school and beginning of college.[1][2][3][4][5] This phenomenon is especially prevalent in low-income minority communities, where students who qualify for college and in some cases even register for classes ultimately end up not attending college because they lack resources, support, guidance, and encouragement.[6][7][8] Support programs by colleges, such as introducing peer mentoring programming, and using nudge methods like messaging students via text message, have been found to reduce summer melt.[9][10][11]


  1. ^ Ceja, Alejandra (July 2013). "Summer Melt". Homeroom. United States Department of Education. Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  2. ^ LARRY GORDON, October 19, 2014, Los Angeles Times Advisors work to freeze 'summer melt,' get students to college, Retrieved January 19, 2015
  3. ^ Stacy Teicher Khadaroo, AUGUST 8, 2014, Christian Science Monitor, Stopping 'summer melt' – and getting more kids to college this fall, Retrieved January 19, 2015
  4. ^ Peg Tyre, August 29, 2013, Washington Post, Why some students are no-shows on the first day of college, Retrieved January 19, 2015
  5. ^ Annie Murphy Paul, May 24, 2013, Time Magazine, The Key to College Success: Summer -- Incoming freshmen can flounder in the months before becoming a college student, Retrieved January 19, 2015
  6. ^ Jennifer Andaluz, San Jose Mercury News, August 14, 2014, Summer melt: Low income kids accepted to college need help to actually get there, Retrieved January 19, 2015
  7. ^ Vedantam, Shankar (July 16, 2013). "Why Poor Students' College Plans 'Melt' Over The Summer". NPR (Interview). Interviewed by Greene, David. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  8. ^ Castleman, B. L., & Page, L. C. (2013). Can Text Messages Mitigate Summer Melt?. New England Journal of Higher Education, 2.
  9. ^ Castleman, B. L., Page, L. C., & Schooley, K. (2014). The Forgotten Summer: Does the Offer of College Counseling after High School Mitigate Summer Melt among College-Intending, Low-Income High School Graduates?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(2), 320-344.
  10. ^ Castleman, B. L., Owen, L., & Page, L. C. (2016). Reprint of “Stay late or start early? Experimental evidence on the benefits of college matriculation support from high schools versus colleges”. Economics Of Education Review, 51113-124.
  11. ^ Belkin, Douglas (11 August 2017). "College Admissions Officers Won't Just Chill About 'Summer Melt'". Wall Street Journal.