Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya

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Tomb of Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya Mooris Aala of Koth Ballia
Mallick Baya, Mallick Bayyu
Tomb of Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya Mooris Aala of Koth Ballia is located in Bihar
Tomb of Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya Mooris Aala of Koth Ballia
Tomb of Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya Mooris Aala of Koth Ballia
Coordinates: 25°07′N 85°31′E / 25.11°N 85.51°E / 25.11; 85.51Coordinates: 25°07′N 85°31′E / 25.11°N 85.51°E / 25.11; 85.51
Country India
State Bihar
District Nalanda
City Bihar Sharif
Burial Place Pir Pahari

Syed Ibrahim Mallick, Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya, Mallick, Malick, or Malik are the possible spellings used for the same name by Mallicks from Bihar, India. Syed Ibrahim Mallick came to India during the time of Sultan Mohammad Tughlaq in 740 Hijri. (1339 A.D.). Syed Ibrahim's ancestors were native of Baghdad who migrated to Afghanistan and settled in the district of Gardez Budt Nagar, which was located near Ghazni.

The Muslim population of Bihar was around 13% before the partition of India in 1947. At that time,“Mallicks” constituted about 25% of the Muslim population of Bihar, mostly concentrated in the villages and towns in the districts of Patna, Bihar Sharif, Gaya, Arah, Jehanabad, Arwal, Auranagabad, Nawada, Jamui, Lakhisarai, Madhupur, Munger, Ballia and Sheikhpura. Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya or Mallick Bayyu) (born near Ghazni, in (Afghanistan) is the progenitor of the Syed “Mallicks” Muslim community of Bihar, India. His ancestors had migrated to the region from Baghdad to escape from persecution at the hands of the Abbasids. Syed Ibrahim Mallick came to India in 740 Hijri (1339 AD), where he served as a general in Sultan Mohammad Tughlaq's army. After several successful battles and campaigns he received the title of “Mallick Baya” from the Sultan Tughlaq, and was later appointed the Governor of the district of Bihar by the Sultan's son.

Arrival in India[edit]

Syed Ibrahim Mallick settled in Bihar Sharif (India) with his family, and ruled over the region until his assassination on Monday, 13th Zul-Hijjah, 753 Hijri (1353 AD). Syed Ibrahim Mallick`s tomb is over a hill known as Pir Pahari in Bihar Sharif. Descendants of Syed Ibrahim Mallick use the title “Mallick” as their surname. from Bihar, India, villages and towns in the districts of Patna, Bihar Sharif, Gaya, Arah, Jehanabad, Arwal, Aurangabad, Nawada, Jamui, Lakhisarai, Madhupur, Munger and Sheikhpura. The names of these villages are still of historical importance and for the purpose of record and identification of the Syed or Sayyid “Mallicks” whose forefathers hailed from these villages. Sayyid and Mallick are not different, Syed's family uses surname title "Mallicks" in Bihar.

At the time of Sultan Tughlaq (1290 AD-1351 AD), even though the State of Bihar was under the control of Delhi, for all practical purposes, its rulers were autonomous. The Sultan received numerous complaints against the Raja Bithal, the Governor (Subedar) of Bihar, who was not only a tyrant but also a rebel against the Sultan of Delhi.

The Sultan sent his general, Syed Ibrahim Mallick, to punish Raja Bithal. After a fierce battle, the Raja was killed and his army was defeated. The conquest of Bihar was a remarkable achievement, and on this occasion, the Sultan conferred upon Syed Ibrahim Mallick the title of “Madarul Mulk” means Mallick or Saif-o-Daulat (Administrator and King of Sword and Wealth). It is recorded that the Sultan was so jubilant by this victory, that in his court he himself came down to receive and greet Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick. After an exchange of greetings, Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq said to Syed Ibrahim Mallick and said in Persian (the official language at the time) “Mallick Baya, Be-nashin” meaning “O King come and sit next to me” and led Syed Ibrahim Mallick to his seat. The Sultan bestowed this great honor upon him. Since then, he was called “Mallick Baya”. The Sultan appointed Syed Ibrahim Mallick as the governor of the state of Bihar. Syed chose to settle with his family and relatives in Bihar Sharif.

Syed Ibrahim Mallick was a distinguished military general, and an eminent Sufi (saint) as well. He was a descendent of Ali ibn Abi Talib and when the Abbasyds persecuted his ancestors, they escaped to Ghazni. He was born and raised in Ghazni. Syed Ibrahim Mallick received his education and military training in Ghazni and later moved to Delhi to serve under the tutelage of Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq, who was famous for his magnificent patronage of intellectuals, scholars, and talented military generals of his time. Besides Syed Ibrahim Mallick, Ibn Batuta, the famous traveler and pioneer explorer, and other people like him came from all over the world to serve the Sultan.

In Bihar, Syed Ibrahim Mallick led many expeditions such as Deora and Khatangi etc., and defeated Raja Baithal and was appointed Governor of Bihar by Sultan Mohammad bin Tughlaq. Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick also served as Governor of Bihar and general for a few years from 1351-1353 AD/751-753 AH, during the reign of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Cousin of Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq. During his reign, he fought his last pitched battles with Raja Hans Kumar and conquered Rohtasgarh Fort.

Assassination[edit]

When the fighting finally stopped, Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick established law and order in the region. After peace prevailed, one night Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya left the fort, when a group of enemy soldiers, hiding in the darkness outside the fort, perpetrated a sneak attack on this general from behind and killed him. Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick died on Sunday, 13th Dul Hajj 753 AH corresponding to 20 January 1353 AD. His body was brought to Bihar Sharif for burial, where he had lived nearly his entire life with his family, relatives, and kinsmen.

Commemoration[edit]

Syed Ibrahim Mallick is regarded as one of the great saints of Bihar. The progenies of the eight children of Syed Ibrahim Mallick grew over 660 years and constituted a significant portion of the Muslim community in Bihar. The tomb is said to have built by Syed Daud Mallick, the eldest of the seven sons of the saint, who is also buried inside the tomb. The tomb of Syed Ibrahim Mallick is located in Bihar Sharif, at the hilltop of Pir Pahari, one mile west of the town. The mausoleum is an extraordinary structure of a rare quality of bricks, which have withstood the ravages of time and unrelenting devastation of weather for the last 660 years.

After 660 years, the structure stands as if it were built in recent days. Besides Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya’s tomb, there are 10 more graves of his wife, sons, daughters, grandson, nephew and brother inside the dome. The names of his sons buried outside the tomb are Syed Badaruddin Mallick, Syed Sadaruddin Mallick, Syed Mohammad Mohsin Mallick, Syed Daud Mallick, a daughter Syeda Bibi Munehiya, one Nephew, one Brother, one Grandson, one Wife & two sons of Mohammad Ilyas Mallick or Syed Suleman Mallick. The tombs of other family members and companions of Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick Baya are lying on the east, west and south sides of the mausoleum.

Due to the high respect and reverence given to the tomb of Syed Ibrahim Mallick Baya for generations, no one is buried on the north side of the dome. The south side of the burial place is still reserved only for the Syed “Mallicks” family members who wish to be buried on Pir Pahari.

The poet Sahibzada Syed Raees Ahmad Chishti (Ahmad Raees) Karachi in Pakistan produced the work Nazraana-e-Aqeedatt about Sayyid Ibrahim Mallick.

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