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The process involves inputting notes into a computer sequencing program as midi, which then produces those tones on electronic instruments. These instruments can either be software synthesizers, orchestral sample libraries, or external hardware. The midi values (e.g. velocity), controllers, automation and the sounds themselves often need to be manipulated in great detail in order to mimic the articulation and ensemble playing of an orchestra or group of players.
The term is a combination of the words 'synth(esizer)' and 'orchestration' (where a musical work is arranged for instruments, traditionally from one or two solo instruments to orchestra).
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