Talk:Koko (gorilla)/Sources

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  • Candland, Douglas K. (1995). Feral Children and Clever Animals: Reflections on Human Nature. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 293–301. ISBN 0195102843.  Unknown parameter |origdate= ignored (|orig-year= suggested) (help)
  • Fischer, Steven R. (2003). A History of Language. Reaktion Books. pp. 26–28. ISBN 186189080X.  Unknown parameter |origdate= ignored (|orig-year= suggested) (help)
  • Patterson, F. G. P. (2001). "Twenty-seven Years of Project Koko and Michael". In Biruté M.F. Galdikas, Nancy Erickson Briggs, Lori K. Sheeran, Gary L. Shapiro, Jane Goodall. All Apes Great and Small: African Apes. Springer. pp. 165–176. ISBN 0306467577.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Clark, M. et al., "Koko’s Mac II: A Preliminary Report." In L. Brenda (ed.), The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1990.
  • Crail, Ted. Apetalk and Whalespeak. Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher, 1981.
  • Godwin, Sara. Gorillas. New York: Mallard Press, 1990.

Children's books[edit]

  • McNulty, Faith. With Love from Koko. New York: Scholastic Books, 1989.
  • Patterson, F. Koko's Kitten. New York: Scholastic Books, 1985.
  • Patterson, F. Koko's Story. New York: Scholastic Books, 1987.
  • Patterson, F. Koko-Love! Conversations with a Signing Gorilla. Dutton Children’s Books, New York, 1999.
  • Rose, A. L., Patterson, F. and Cohn, R. Michael’s Dream, in press. [Is this a children's book?]


  • Patterson, FG. (Jan. 1981). "Ape Language". Science. 211 (4477): 86–87. doi:10.1126/science.211.4477.86-a. PMID 7444454.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Patterson, FG. (Jan. 1978). "The gestures of a gorilla: language acquisition in another pongid". Brain and Language. 5 (1): 72–97. doi:10.1016/0093-934X(78)90008-1.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Watson, Lyna M. "Hormone Levels and Overt Social Behaviors, Including Signed Output, in a Captive Lowland Gorilla." Zoo Biology, 1984, 3, 285-306.
  • Cohn, Ronald. H. "Koko." Faces, November 1990, 7(3), 14-17.


  • Cohn, R.H. "Interspecies Communication for Gorilla Enrichment and Research," Proceedings: Columbus Zoo Gorilla Workshop, June 22-25, 1990.

8. Gorilla, a journal published semiannually by the Gorilla Foundation, Box 620-530, Woodside, CA 94062.



  • The Discoverers, (CD-ROM) Knowledge Adventure, Inc., La Crescenta, CA, (800) 542-4240.
  • The Gorilla Foundation and SVE and Churchill Media. Koko's Kitten. Churchill Media, 6677 North Northwest Hwy, Chicago, IL 60631-1304, (800) 829-1900.
  • Harrar, L. Signs of the Apes, Songs of the Whales. (Videotape) Boston, MA: WGBH Educational Foundation, Nova.
  • Johnson, Anne C. Are They Really Dumb? —Intelligence and Language among the Animals. (Filmstrip) News Currents, Knowledge Unlimited 1984, Box 52, Madison, WI 53701.
  • Moses, Harry. Talk to the Animals, a 12-minute,16-mm film produced for 60 Minutes, CBS. Available through CRM McGraw-Hill Films, 110 Fifteenth Street, Del Mar, CA 92014.
  • National Geographic Society. Gorilla. (Videotape) 1986. Available through Movies Unlimited, (800) 523-0823 (Product no. 471590).
  • Patterson, P. Women on Leadership: Insights from Women Making an Impact on our World (interview on CD). Thompson, M. and Wilson R. (Eds). Leaders of the New Century series by Network Public Broadcasting International, 2002
  • Schroeder, Barbet. Koko, a Talking Gorilla, 1978. Videotape available through Baker & Taylor Company, Chicago, (800) 775-2400.
  • Successmaker Reading Adventures, (CD-ROM) Computer Curriculum Corporation, 1287 Lawrence Station Road, Sunnyvale, CA. (800) 227-8324.
  • Visty/Brennan Productions and Thirteen/WNET in association with the Gorilla Foundation/ A Conversation with Koko. Nature Video Library. 1999.

Newspaper Articles[edit]


  • Fadiman, Anne. "How a Loquacious Gorilla Named Koko Became Smitten With Kittens." Life, July 1985, 8(8), 22-28. Condensed in Reader’s Digest, October 1985, 127, (762), 200-206.
  • Griffiths, Joan, "Gorilla My Dreams: Designing an Ape’s Computer Poses Unexpected Challenges." Omni, November 1991, 14(2), 27.
  • Summers, Beth. "Koko’s Computer." National Geographic World, November 1993, (219), 14-17.
  • Vessels, Jane. "Koko's Kitten." National Geographic, January 1985, 167 (1), 110-113.

To be sorted[edit]

Full PDF copy of The Development of Spontaneous Gestures in Zoo-living Gorillas and Sign-taught Gorillas: From Action and Location to Object Representation

Through Bibliography of works by Patterson or co-written by Patterson

Foundation Page See especially "Who is Koko?" section, for citing details of early days, summary of Patterson's claims, etc.

1. Patterson, F.G. "The Gestures of a Gorilla: Language Acquisition in Another Pongid." Brain and Language, 1978, 5, 72-97.

2. Patterson, F.G.P. "Human Communication with Gorillas." In G.B. Stone (ed.), In the Spirit of Enterprise. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Co., 1978.

3. Patterson, F. "Conversations with a Gorilla." National Geographic, October 1978, 154 (4), 438-465. Condensed in Reader's Digest, March 1979, 114 (683), 81-86.

4. Patterson, F.G. Linguistic Capabilities of a Lowland Gorilla. Stanford University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1979. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 (#79-172-69). Abs. in Dissertation Abstracts International, August 1979, 40-B, 2.

5. Patterson, F.G. "Linguistic Capabilities of a Young Lowland Gorilla." In F.C. Peng (ed.), Sign Language and Language Acquisition in Man and Ape: New Dimensions in Comparative Pedolinguistics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1978. Reprinted in R.L. Schiefelbusch and J.H. Hollis (eds.), Language Intervention from Ape to Child. Baltimore, Maryland: University Park Press, 1979.

6. Patterson, F. "Comment on Terrace." NYU Educational Quarterly, Letters, 1980, 11 (3), 33.

7. Patterson, F.G. "Innovative Uses of Language by a Gorilla: A Case Study." In K.E. Nelson (ed.), Children's Language, vol. 2. New York: Gardner Press, 1980.

8. Patterson, F. "Gorilla Talk: Comment on Monkey Business." The New York Review of Books, October 1980, 27 (15), 45-46.

9. Patterson, F. "In Search of Man: Experiments in Primate Communication." The Michigan Quarterly Review, Winter 1980, 19 (1), 95-114.

10. Patterson, F. "Can an Ape Create a Sentence? Some Affirmative Evidence." Science, 1981, 211, 86-87.

11. Patterson, F. "Generalized Language Ability in the Gorilla." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, August 1981.

12. Patterson, F. "Gorilla Warfare." American Psychological Association Monitor, Letters, January 1981, 2 (1), 16, 41.

13. Patterson, F. "Koko the Articulate Gorilla." Ms. Magazine, December 1981, 42-48.

14. Patterson, F. "More on Ape Talk." The New York Review of Books, April 1981, 28 (5), 43.

15. Patterson, F., and Linden, E. The Education of Koko. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981.

16. Patterson, F. "Gorilla Language Acquisition." National Geographic Society Research Reports, vol.17 (1976 Projects). Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1984.

17. Patterson, F. "Self-Recognition by Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla.” Gorilla Journal, June 1984, 7(2), 2-3.

18. Patterson, F., Share, E., and Cornwall, C. "Interspecies Communication and Conservation." Primate Conservation (IUCN/SSC), January 1985, 5, 39-40.

19. Patterson, F. "The Mind of the Gorilla: Conversation and Conservation." In K. Benirschke (ed.), Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining Populations. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986.

20. Patterson, C.H., and Patterson, F.G. "On Being Human—Language and Primates." Contemporary Psychology, Letters, 1986, 31(9), 722-723.

21. Patterson, F., and Espey, L. "Procedures at the Gorilla Foundation." Gorilla Gazette, November 1987, 1 (2).

22. Patterson, F., Patterson, C. H., and Brentari, D.K. "Language in Child, Chimp, and Gorilla." American Psychologist, March 1987, 42 (3), 270-272.

23. Patterson, F., and Espey, L. Gorilla Facility Survey Results. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 1988, 27 (1), 27-28.

24. Patterson, F., and Patterson, C.H. "Review of Ape Language: From Conditioned Response to Symbol." American Journal of Psychology, 1988, 101 (4), 582-590.

25. Patterson, F., Tanner, J., and Mayer, N. "Pragmatic Analysis of Gorilla Utterances: Early Communicative Development in the Gorilla Koko." Journal of Pragmatics, 1988, 12 (1), 35-55.

26. Patterson, F., and Kennedy, M.K. "Interspecies Communication: Humane Innovation." Humane Innovations and Alternatives in Animal Experimentation—A Notebook, 1989, 3, 126-127.

27. Patterson, F.G.P., and Cohn, R.H. "Language Acquisition by a Lowland Gorilla: Koko’s First Ten Years of Vocabulary Development," Word, August 1990, 41 (2), 97-143.

28. Patterson, F.G.P. & Holts, C.L. Project Koko: Language acquisition by lowland gorillas. In Introduction to the Study of Language, F. Peng & B. Hoffer (Eds.). London: Cole and Whurr, Ltd., 1990.

29. Tanner, J. & Patterson, F. Gestural communication in captive lowland gorillas. Paper presented at the Thirteenth Annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Davis, California, July, 1990.

30. Patterson, F.G.P., Holts, C.L., and Saphire, L. "Cyclic Changes in Hormonal, Physical, Behavioral and Linguistic Measures in a Female Lowland Gorilla." American Journal of Primatology, 1991, 24, 181-194.

31. Patterson, F., and Gordon, W. "The Case for the Personhood of Gorillas." In P. Cavalieri and P. Singer (eds.), The Great Ape Project: Equality Beyond Humanity. London: Fourth Estate, 1993 and New York: St. Martin’s, 1994.

32. Bonvillian, J.D. and Patterson, F.G.P. "Early Language Acquisition in Children and Gorillas: Vocabulary Content and Sign Iconicity." First Language, 1993, 13, 315-338.

33. Patterson, F.G.P., and Cohn, R.H. "Self-recognition and Self-awareness in Lowland Gorillas." In S.T. Parker, R.W. Mitchell and M.L. Boccia (eds.), Self-awareness in Animals and Humans. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

34. Bonvillian, J.D., Maynard, A.E., and Patterson, F.G.P. "The Acquisition of Sign Formational Aspects in a Lowland Gorilla," paper presented at the 6th Annual Conference of the American Psychological Society, Washington, D.C., July 1994.

35. Kranz, L.A., and Patterson, F. "State of the Art Preserve Designed For and By Gorillas." Humane Innovations and Alternatives, 1994, 8, 574-578.

36. Bonvillian, J.D. and Patterson, F.G.P. "Sign Language Acquisition and the Development of Meaning in a Lowland Gorilla." In C. Mandell and A. McCabe (eds.), The Problem of Meaning: Behavioral and Cognitive Perspectives. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1997.

37. Bonvillian, J.D. and Patterson, F.G.P. "Early Sign-Language Acquisition: Comparisons between Children and Gorillas." In S.T. Parker, R.W. Mitchell and H.L. Miles (eds.), The Mentalities of Gorillas and Orangutans. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

36. Patterson, F.G.P., Matevia, M.L. and Hillix, W.A. "Language acquisition in lowland grillas: What Project Koko has shown us." Russian Journal of Foreign Psychology. Moscow: Master Press, 2000.

39. McFarland, R.K., Patterson, F.G.P and Zihlman, A.L. “Body composition in a prime adult male gorilla compared to a male of similar body mass and a female of similar age,” presented at the 70th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Kansas City, Missouri, March 28-31, 2001.

40. Matevia, M.L., Patterson, F.G.P. and Hillix, W.A. "Pretend play in a signing gorilla." In Robert Mitchell, Pretending and Imagination in Animals and Children. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, February 2002.

41. Patterson, F.G.P. and Matevia, M.L. "The status of gorillas worldwide." In Birute Galdikas, Nancy Briggs, Lori Sheeran, Gary Shapiro, and Jane Goodall (eds.), All Apes Great and Small, Volume I: Chimpanzees, Bonobos, and Gorillas. Kluwer Press, 2002.

42. Patterson, F.G.P. and Gordon, W. "Twenty-seven years of Project Koko and Michael." In Birute Galdikas, Nancy Briggs, Lori Sheeran, Gary Shapiro, and Jane Goodall (eds.), All Apes Great and Small, Volume I: Chimpanzees, Bonobos, and Gorillas. Kluwer Press, 2002.

43. Bonvillian, J.D., & Patterson, F.G.P. “A New Paradigm?” comment on “The Emergence of a New Paradigm in Ape Language Research” by Shanker, S.G. and King, B.J. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2002, 25, 621-622.

44. Patterson, F.G.P "Communication Studies" in The Great Ape Project Census: Recognition for the Uncounted, (Foreword by Peter Singer), 2003, Great Ape Project (GAP) Books. Pp. 219-232.

45 . Patterson, F.G.P., "Koko," in Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, Volume 2, section G (Gorillas), edited by Marc Bekoff, Greenwood Press, 2004.

46 . Tanner, Joanne E., Patterson, Francine G. and Byrne, Richard W.; The Development of Spontaneous Gestures in Zoo-living Gorillas and Sign-taught Gorillas: From Action and Location to Object Representation; The Journal of Developmental Processes, Fall 2006, Volume 1, 69-102. Chrisrus (talk) 18:40, 29 June 2008 (UTC)

URLs "I talked with Koko"[edit]

Includes quoted "conversation" with Koko, would go with the AOL chat:

A man meets Dr Francine Neago, who tells him of a conversation with Koko:

Neago's CV. Establishes her credentials and shows something of her relationship with Patterson, who she lists as a reference.

Article about Tiarra Wilson, GF intern, from a magazine from Patterson's employer, Santa Clara Universty

Text of Nov. 29, 2000, AOL "Chat"

Excellent Page: —Preceding Chrisrus (talk) 18:38, 29 June 2008 (UTC)