Originally, the term "teamster" referred to a person who drove a team of draft animals, usually a wagon drawn by oxen, horses, or mules. This term was common by the time of the Mexican–American War (1848) and the Indian Wars throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries on the American frontier.
Another name for the occupation was bullwhacker, related to driving oxen. A teamster might also drive pack animals, such as a muletrain, in which case he was also known as a muleteer or muleskinner. Today this person may be called an outfitter or packer. In Australian English, a teamster was also known as a bullocker or bullocky.
From the Revolutionary War through, at least, World War I, United States Army enlisted personnel responsible for transporting supplies by wagon and upkeep of animals for this purpose were called wagoners.
- Harper, Douglas. "teamster". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Gunasekera, Jayantha (Feb 9, 2014). "How Kotelawala (Snr) got young brother-in-law killed". The Sunday Times. Sri Lanka.
- Shemanski, Frances (1984) "Mule Days Celebration", A Guide to Fairs and Festivals in the United States, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, p. 15, ISBN 0-313-21437-9
- "The American Revolutionary War (1776)". U. S. Army Transportation Museum. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- Telleen, Maurice (1977), The Draft Horse Primer: A Guide to the Care and Use of Work Horses and Mules, Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, ISBN 0-87857-161-2
- Elser, Smoke (1980), Packin' in on Mules and Horses Mountain Press Publishing Co., Missoula, Montana, ISBN 0-87842-127-0
- Gebhards, Stacy V. (2000), When Mules Wear Diamonds: Mountain Packing with Mules and Horses Wilderness Skills, McCall, Idaho, OCLC 47630999
- Damerow, Gail; Ainsworth, Brandt and Edmunds, Bill (2001) Driving Draft Horses, DVD, Rural Heritage Video, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, ISBN 978-1-893707-31-3
- Damerow, Gail and Rice, Alina (2008), Draft Horses and Mules: Harnessing Equine Power for Farm & Show, Storey Publishing, North Adams, Massachusetts, ISBN 978-1-60342-081-5