Teat

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The teats protruding from the udder of a cow. Teats vary in number and size on cattle.

A teat is the projection from the udder or mammary glands of mammals from which milk flows or is ejected for the purpose of feeding young.[1][2][3] In many mammals the teat projects from the udder. The number of teats vary by mammalian species and often corresponds to the size of an average litter for that animal.[4][5] In some cases, milk is removed from the teat of a female animal for the purpose of human consumption.

Part of a milking device that fits over the teats of a cow.

Teat is also used for the rubber mouth piece of a baby's feeding bottle. Teat is derived from the Old French or Dutch word, "tete". An alternative, but possibly not unrelated, would be the Welsh word "teth" or the Old English, "titt" which is still used as a slang term.The words "teat" and "tit" share a Germanic ancestor. The second of the two, tit, was inherited directly from Proto-Germanic, while the first entered English via Old French.[6][7]

The number and positioning of mammary glands and teats varies widely among mammals. The protruding teats and accompanying glands can be located anywhere along the two milk lines. In general most mammals develop mammary glands in pairs along these lines, with a number approximating the number of young typically birthed at a time. The number of teats varies from 2 (in most primates) to 18 (in pigs). The Virginia opossum has 13, one of the few mammals with an odd number.[8][9] The following table lists the number and position of teats and glands found in a range of mammals:

Species[10] Anterior teats
(thoracic)
Intermediate teats
(abdominal)
Posteriorteats
(inguinal)
Total teats
Goat, sheep, horse
guinea pig
0 0 2 2
Cattle 0 0 4 4
Cat 2 2 4 8
Dog[11] 4 2 2 or 4 8 or 10
Mouse 6 0 4 10
Rat 6 2 4 12
Pig 6 6 6 18
proboscideans, primates 2 0 0 2

Disease of teats[edit]

A number of diseases can affect the teats of cattle.[12]

Goats also diseases of the teats: [13]

Standard forms[edit]

The quality of some domesticated animals is determined by the establishment of desired characteristics. Teats are used to judge animals on whether or not they meet these standards.[14][15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "teat - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 12 August 2017. 
  2. ^ "Definition of TEAT". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 12 August 2017. 
  3. ^ "teat - definition of teat in English - Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries - English. Retrieved 12 August 2017. 
  4. ^ Rowen D. Frandson; W. Lee Wilke; Anna Dee Fails (1 April 2013), Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 449–451, ISBN 978-1-118-68601-0 
  5. ^ "Mammalian Milk". www.earthlife.net. Retrieved 12 August 2017. 
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas (2001–2010). "teat". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas (2001–2010). "tit (1)". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  8. ^ "With the Wild Things – Transcripts". Digitalcollections.fiu.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-05. 
  9. ^ Stockard, Mary (2005) Raising Orphaned Baby Opossums. Alabama Wildlife Center.
  10. ^ Cunningham, Merle; LaTour, Mickey A. & Acker, Duane (2005). Animal Science and Industry. Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-046256-5. 
  11. ^ Dog breeds vary in the number of mammary glands: larger breeds tend to have 5 pairs, smaller breeds have 4 pairs.
  12. ^ http://www.merckvetmanual.com/reproductive-system/udder-diseases/diseases-of-bovine-teats-and-skin
  13. ^ http://www.tennesseemeatgoats.com/articles2/mastitisketosis.html
  14. ^ http://abga.org/abga-education/teat-structure-chart/
  15. ^ http://www.npga-pygmy.com/resources/conformation/teats.asp