Template:Infobox boron/testcases

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Boron,  5B
Boron R105.jpg
boron (β-rhombohedral)[1]
General properties
Pronunciation /ˈbɔərɒn/
Allotropes α-, β-rhombohedral, β-tetragonal (and more)
Appearance black-brown
Standard atomic weight (Ar) [10.806, 10.821][2] conventional: 10.81
Boron in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (post-transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (post-transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (post-transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (post-transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


B

Al
berylliumboroncarbon
Atomic number (Z) 5
Group, period group 13 (boron group), period 2
Block p-block
Element category   metalloid
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p1
Electrons per shell
2, 3
Physical properties
Spectral lines
Color lines in a spectral range
Phase (at STP) solid
Melting point 2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F)
Boiling point 4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F)
Density when liquid (at m.p.) 2.08 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 508 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 11.087 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1, −1, −5[3][4] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.04
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 800.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2427.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3659.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 90 pm
Covalent radius 84±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 192 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure rhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for boron
Speed of sound thin rod 16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion β form: 5–7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[5]
Thermal conductivity 27.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity ~106 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[6]
Magnetic susceptibility −6.7·10−6 cm3/mol[7]
Mohs hardness ~9.5
CAS Number 7440-42-8
History
Discovery Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard[8] (30 June 1808)
First isolation Humphry Davy[9] (9 July 1808)
Main isotopes of boron
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
10B 20% stable[10]
11B 80% stable[10]
10B content may be as low as 19.1% and as high as 20.3% in natural samples. 11B is the remainder in such cases.[11]
| references | in Wikidata
Boron,  5B
Boron R105.jpg
Boron, shown here in the form of its β-rhombohedral phase (its most thermodynamically stable allotrope)[12]
General properties
Pronunciation /ˈbɔərɒn/
Appearance black-brown
Boron in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (post-transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (post-transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (post-transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (post-transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
-

B

Al
berylliumboroncarbon
Atomic number (Z) 5
Group, period group 13 (boron group), period 2
Block p-block
Element category   metalloid
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p1
Electrons per shell
2, 3
Physical properties
Spectral lines
Color lines in a spectral range
Phase (at STP) solid
Melting point 2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F)
Boiling point 4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F)
Density when liquid (at m.p.) 2.08 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 508 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 11.087 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1[3] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.04
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 800.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2427.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3659.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 90 pm
Covalent radius 84±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 192 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure rhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for boron
Speed of sound thin rod 16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion β form: 5–7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[13]
Thermal conductivity 27.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity ~106 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[6]
Mohs hardness ~9.5
CAS Number 7440-42-8
History
Discovery Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard[8] (30 June 1808)
First isolation Humphry Davy[9] (9 July 1808)
Main isotopes of boron
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
10B 19.9(7)% stable[10]
11B 80.1(7)% stable[10]
10B content may be as low as 19.1% and as high as 20.3% in natural samples. 11B is the remainder in such cases.[14]
| references | in Wikidata

References

  1. ^ Van Setten et al. 2007, pp. 2460–1
  2. ^ Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  3. ^ a b Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF" (PDF). J. Molecular Spectroscopy. 170: 82. Bibcode:1995JMoSp.170...82Z. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "v1" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  4. ^ Melanie Schroeder. "Eigenschaften von borreichen Boriden und Scandium-Aluminium-Oxid-Carbiden" (PDF) (in German). p. 139. 
  5. ^ Holcombe Jr., C. E.; Smith, D. D.; Lorc, J. D.; Duerlesen, W. K.; Carpenter; D. A. (October 1973). "Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron". High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57. 
  6. ^ a b Lide, David R. (ed.) (2000). Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF). CRC press. ISBN 0849304814.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "magnet" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  8. ^ a b Gay Lussac, J.L. & Thenard, L.J. (1808). "Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique". Annales de chimie. 68: 169–174.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Lussac" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  9. ^ a b Davy H (1809). "An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 99: 39–104. doi:10.1098/rstl.1809.0005.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Davy" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  10. ^ a b c d "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2008-09-21.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "NISTic" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  11. ^ Szegedi, S.; Váradi, M.; Buczkó, Cs. M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters. 146 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/BF02165219. 
  12. ^ Van Setten et al. 2007, pp. 2460–1
  13. ^ Holcombe Jr., C. E.; Smith, D. D.; Lorc, J. D.; Duerlesen, W. K.; Carpenter; D. A. (October 1973). "Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron". High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57. 
  14. ^ Szegedi, S.; Váradi, M.; Buczkó, Cs. M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters. 146 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/BF02165219.