Tetramethylxylylene diisocyanate

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Tetramethylxylylene diisocyanate
TMXDI Monomer.svg
Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.018.614 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 220-474-4
  • InChI=1S/C14H16N2O2/c1-13(2,15-9-17)11-6-5-7-12(8-11)14(3,4)16-10-18/h5-8H,1-4H3
  • CC(C)(C1=CC(=CC=C1)C(C)(C)N=C=O)N=C=O
Molar mass 244.294 g·mol−1
Appearance colorless liquid
Density 1.06
Melting point −10 °C (14 °F; 263 K)
GHS labelling:
GHS05: CorrosiveGHS07: Exclamation markGHS08: Health hazardGHS09: Environmental hazard
H315, H317, H319, H330, H334, H335, H372, H410
P260, P261, P264, P270, P271, P272, P273, P280, P284, P285, P302+P352, P304+P340, P304+P341, P305+P351+P338, P310, P312, P314, P320, P321, P332+P313, P333+P313, P337+P313, P342+P311, P362, P363, P391, P403+P233, P405, P501
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Tetramethylxylylene diisocyanate (TMXDI) is an organic compound is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(CMe2NCO)2 (Me = CH3). The molecule features two isocyanate groups.[1][2][3] It was introduced in the 1980s by American Cyanamid. TMXDI is generally classified as an aliphatic isocyanate. Aliphatic isocyanates generally exhibit enhanced UV stability compared to their aromatic counterparts.


Many isocyanates are produced by phosgenation of amines, but TMXDI is not. It is produced by the reaction of diisopropenylbenzene with hydrogen chloride followed by isocyanic acid:[4]

C6H4(C(Me)=CH2)2 + 2 HCl → C6H4(CMe2Cl)2
C6H4(CMe2Cl)2 + 2 HNCO → C6H4(CMe2NCO)2 + 2 HCl


A key use for TMXDI is in manufacturing polyurethane prepolymers. It is also used to manufacture polyurethane dispersions (PUDs).[5][6][7][8][9] These materials are then further used to manufacture coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers.

TMXDI has been considered as a replacement for Isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). IPDI has a molecular weight of 222.3 and thus a NCO equivalent weight of 111.15. TMXDI has a molecular weight of 244.3 and thus an equivalent weight of 122.15. Thus per mole, approximately 10% more is required than the equivalent prepolymer based on IPDI. This difference increases cost.When making polyurethanes dispersions (PUDs) TMXDI is advantageous. Being sterically hindered, the NCO groups are slower reacting which is good when dispersing a prepolymer in water to make a PUD. It reduces side reactions and allows more time to allow the dispersion stage before the mix is chain extended. This is done usually with a diamine.[10] It has even found use in a rocket propellant binder by the US military[11]


Extensive data has become available.[12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "m-Tetramethylxylene diisocyanate". iaspub.epa.gov. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on 2018-11-06. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  2. ^ "1,3-Bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2018-11-06. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
  3. ^ "Tetramethylxylene diisocyanate". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2018-11-06. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  4. ^ Christian Six, Frank Richter (2005). "Isocyanates, Organic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a14_611.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ "Oxazolidines and tetramethylxylenediisocyanate based polyurethanes in legislation-compliant anticorrosion coatings – PDF Free Download". slideheaven.com. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
  6. ^ US 7342068, Eric Howard Klingenberg & Shafiq Nisarali Fazel, "Aqueous polyurethane dispersion and method for making and using same", issued 2003-11-18, assigned to Versum Materials US LLC 
  7. ^ KG, Vincentz Network GmbH & Co. "Aqueous PUDs". European Coatings. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
  8. ^ Howarth, G A; Manock, H L (July 1997). "Water-borne polyurethane dispersions and their use in functional coatings". Surface Coatings International. 80 (7): 324–328. doi:10.1007/bf02692680. ISSN 1356-0751. S2CID 137433262.
  9. ^ "Water Based Polyurethanes Dispersions(PUDs)-An Overview". www.linkedin.com. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
  10. ^ "TMXDI Technical Bulletin" (PDF).
  11. ^ US 4913753, Marjorie E. Ducote, "TMXDI, curing agent for hydroxy terminated propellant binders", issued Apr. 3, 1990, assigned to The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army, Washington, D.C. 
  12. ^ Pubchem. "1,3-Bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-11-06. Retrieved 2018-10-23.

External links[edit]