The Appraisal Foundation
The Appraisal Foundation (TAF) is the primary valuation standard setting and qualifications body for the United States. The organization sets the Congressionally-authorized standards for Federal Lending Appraisals and minimum state licensing qualifications for real estate appraisers. While appraisal of other assets including businesses and personal property(art, jewelry, machinery and equipment, etc...) are not subject to licensing, the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice(USPAP), published by TAF, includes valuation standards for those asset classes. TAF also has just organized a non-Federally Chartered Board which has the intent of providing voluntary guidance on recognized valuation methods and techniques for all varieties of valuation professionals. This work advances the profession by ensuring appraisals are independent, consistent, and objective.
The Appraisal Foundation is a non-profit organization established in 1987 by the nation's largest valuation organizations. The Foundation is overseen by the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC), a subcomittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC). The ASC is charged with filing a report to Congress each year, on the activities of TAF.
TAF "is a private, not-for-profit corporation charged by [Title XI of FIRREA] with the responsibility of establishing, improving and promoting minimum uniform appraisal standards and appraiser qualifications criteria". Headquartered in Washington, D.C., TAF is directed by a 24-member Board of Trustees. The Board of Trustees appoints members to and provides financial support and oversight of the three independent Boards: the Appraisal Practices Board (APB), the Appraiser Qualifications Board (AQB), and the Appraisal Standards Board (ASB). The mission statement of the Foundation is
Promoting professionalism and ensuring public trust in the valuation profession. This is accomplished through the promulgation of standards, appraiser qualifications, and guidance regarding valuation methods and techniques.— Adopted by the Board of Trustees May 19, 2012
Real Estate Appraisal practice in the US is regulated by the various states. TAF's Appraisal Standards Board (ASB) promulgates and updates best practices as codified in the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP), and TAF's Appraisal Qualifications Board (AQB) promulgates minimum standards for appraiser certification and licensing. The federal government does not regulate appraisers directly. The Federal Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC), with members from the major Federal Lending Regulators, oversees TAF and the state licensing agencies. If ASC finds that a particular state's appraiser regulation and certification program is inadequate (i.e., it doesn't meet ASB and AQB standards), it can impose penalties including prohibition of a state's licensed appraisers from performing appraisals for federally related lending transactions. Banks make widespread use of appraisals in their real estate lending activiity mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities, Appraisal procurement would be much more difficult without in-state availability of ASC compliant, licensed appraisers.
In the mid 1980s, the crisis in the savings and loan industry highlighted the need to improve appraisal practices throughout the United States. The difficulties and losses experienced by many lending institutions illustrated the importance of ensuring that appraisals are based upon established, recognized standards, free from outside pressures.
In 1986, nine leading professional appraisal organizations in the United States and Canada to form the Ad Hoc Committee on the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice. These nine groups were:
- Appraisal Institute of Canada
- American Institute of Real estate Appraisers (AIREA) *
- American Society of Appraisers
- American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers
- International Association of Assessing Officers
- International Right of Way Association
- National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers
- National Society of Real Estate Appraisers
- Society of Real Estate Appraisers *
(In 1991, AIREA and the Society of Real Estate Appraisers merged under the new name Appraisal Institute.) Note: In 2010, the Appraisal Institute dropped its sponsorship of TAF based on its disagreement with TAF plans to expand its mission outside of the original Congressional mandate.
Agreeing upon a generally accepted set of standards, the eight United States committee members adopted those standards and thereafter established The Appraisal Foundation in 1987 to implement the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice. The Appraiser Qualifications Board was included in the Foundation structure to develop and promote meaningful criteria by which the competence of appraisers could be measured. The Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice was adopted by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Foundation on January 30, 1989 and is recognized throughout the United States as the generally accepted standards of professional appraisal practice.
The work of the Foundation is important to all disciplines of the appraisal profession as well as to the consumer public. The work of the Foundation benefits the appraisal profession by functioning to increase the quality of appraisals and by addressing issues critical to the advancement professional valuation. Users of appraisal services and consumers can feel confident that the Foundation is working to serve their needs and help protect their financial well-being.
The Appraisal Foundation is composed of other organizations. There are no individual members of the Foundation. Today, through Sponsoring Organizations and Advisory Councils, over one hundred organizations, corporations and government agencies are affiliated with The Appraisal Foundation.
The work of the Foundation is accomplished by three independent Boards: The Appraiser Qualifications Board, the Appraisal Standards Board and the Appraisal Practices Board.
The Appraiser Qualifications Board (AQB) establishes the qualification criteria for state licensing, certification and recertification of appraisers. FIRREA mandates that all state certified appraisers must meet the minimum education, experience and examination requirements promulgated by the AQB. The AQB has also developed voluntary criteria for personal property appraisers.
The Appraisal Standards Board (ASB) establishes the rules for developing an appraisal and reporting its results. In addition, it promotes the use, understanding and enforcement of the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) as required by FIRREA.
The Appraisal Practices Board (APB) was formed by Board of Trustees in 2010. The APB is charged with the responsibility of identifying and issuing opinions on recognized valuation methods and techniques, which may apply to all disciplines within the appraisal profession. The APB offers voluntary guidance in topic areas in which appraisers and users of appraisal services feel are the most needed. Compliance with all guidance issued by the APB is entirely voluntary.
Much of the work of The Appraisal Foundation is supported through the professional input and financial assistance of Sponsoring Organizations. The Appraisal Foundation has three types of Sponsors:
• Appraisal Sponsors are non-profit organizations serving appraisers.
• Affiliate Sponsors are non-profit organizations serving those with an interest in appraisal, primarily the users of appraisal services
• International Sponsors are non-profit or non-stock organizations based outside of the United States with an interest in valuation
The Appraisal Foundation offers its sincere gratitude to all of these organizations for their professional and financial support.
American Society of Appraisers
American Society of Farm Managers & Rural Appraisers
Appraisers Association of America
Columbia Society of Real Estate Appraisers
Instituto de Evaluadores de Puerto Rico
International Association of Assessing Officers
International Right of Way Association
International Society of Appraisers
Massachusetts Board of Real Estate Appraisers
National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers
North Carolina Professional Appraisers Coalition
American Bankers Association
Farm Credit Council
National Association of Realtors
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors
- Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC), a USA governmental agency
- Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC), a USA governmental agency
- Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC), a USA governmental agency
- The Department of the Treasury Blueprint for a Modernized Financial Regulatory Structure (PDF). United States Department of the Treasury. 2008. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-016080645-2.
- The Appraisal Foundation
- Appraisal Subcommittee, Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council
- The Appraisal Foundation, Appraisal Subcommittee, Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council
- Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989
- The Appraisal Foundation - Introduction