The Three Periods

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The Three Periods is a Quebec sovereigntist strategy. Before the 1993 federal election in Canada, Parti Québécois (PQ) leader Jacques Parizeau evoked a strategy for attainment of Quebec independence called the Three Periods. The strategy is partly inspired by the three periods of play in ice hockey (the most popular sport in Quebec). It is seen as a typical Parizeau concept: dedicated and straightforward, especially compared to some sovereigntist attitudes like a few (not all) of René Lévesque's (specifically in the last years of his government) or to the étapisme or "step-by-step" strategy.

The Three Periods Strategy[edit]

First period[edit]

Second period[edit]

Third period[edit]


After the plummeting popularity of the newly elected federalist Quebec government in 2003-2004, the sponsorship scandal, the Bloc's renewed popularity for the 2004 federal elections and the rise in support for sovereignty (49% in April 2004), some evoked the return of a new three part plan. Pauline Marois even wrote an article for the Saison des idées in 2004 in favour of establishing a four period plan.

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