The Virgin Suicides
||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (September 2014)|
|Publisher||Farrar, Straus and Giroux|
|Media type||Print (Hardback & Paperback)|
|LC Class||PS3555.U4 V57 1993|
The Virgin Suicides is the 1993 debut novel by American writer Jeffrey Eugenides. The fictional story, which is set in Grosse Pointe, Michigan during the 1970s, centers on one year reflecting around the brief lives of five doomed sisters. The Lisbon girls fascinate their community as their neighbors struggle to find an explanation for their tragic acts. The book's first chapter appeared in Issue No. 117 of The Paris Review (Winter 1990), where it won the 1991 Aga Khan Prize for Fiction.
The novel is atypical in that it was written in first person plural from the perspective of an anonymous group of teenage boys whose lives were forever changed by their passionate and awkward obsession with the Lisbons, style mirroring a Greek chorus. The narrator(s) rely on relics and interviews gathered in the two decades since the events to construct the tale. Eugenides told 3am Magazine: "I think that if my name hadn't been Eugenides, people wouldn't have called the narrator a Greek chorus".
On the morning an ambulance arrives for the body of Mary Lisbon, (the final Lisbon suicide) a group of neighborhood boys recalls the events of the past year leading up to Mary's death.
The Lisbons are a Catholic family living on the elm lined streets of a decaying suburb in Grosse Pointe Michigan during the 1970s. The father, Ronald, is a math teacher at a private school, and the mother is a homemaker. The family has five beautiful daughters: 13-year-old Cecilia, 14-year-old Lux, 15-year-old Bonnie, 16-year-old Mary, and 17-year-old Therese.
Their lives change dramatically within one summer when Cecilia, a stoic and astute girl described as a "cherubic misfit", attempts suicide by slitting her wrists in a bathtub but survives. A few weeks later, the Lisbon parents allow the girls to throw a chaperoned basement party in hopes of cheering Cecilia up. However, Cecilia excuses herself and ascends upstairs to jump out of the second story bedroom window, instantly dying when she is impaled by one of the iron spikes of the fence post below.
Cecilia's suicide and its aftermath force the Lisbon parents to begin to watch over their four remaining daughters even more closely. This further isolates the family from the community and the gossipy neighbors and heightens the air of mystery and intrigue about the Lisbon sisters to the neighborhood boys in particular, who long for more insight into the girls' unfathomable lives.
When school begins in the fall, Lux, the most rebellious of the sisters, described as a "carnal angel" begins a secret romance with local heartthrob Trip Fontaine. Trip negotiates with the overprotective Mr. and Mrs. Lisbon to take Lux to a homecoming dance, on the condition that he finds dates for the other three girls, to go as a group. After winning homecoming king and queen, Trip persuades Lux to ditch the group to have sex on the school's football field. Afterwards, Trip becomes disenchanted with Lux and abandons her. As a result, she misses her curfew. In response to Lux's disobedience, Mrs. Lisbon withdraws the girls from school, draws all the curtains of the house and restricts them in "maximum security isolation".The Lisbons sink into a reclusive lifestyle and rarely leave their home. Not much later, an unstable Mr. Lisbon officially takes a leave of absence from his teaching job.
Despite Mrs. Lisbon's attempt to protect her daughters from the outside world of boys and sex, over the winter a promiscuous Lux is seen having sex on the roof of the Lisbon residence with unknown men at night. Their house falls into a deeper state of disrepair; none of them leave the house and no one visits, not even to deliver milk and groceries. The neighborhood smells a foul stench coming from the Lisbon house that permeates the entire block. From a safe distance, the community watches the Lisbons' lives slowly deteriorate, but no one can summon up the courage to intervene. After months of confinement, the sisters reach out to the boys across the street by using light signals and sending anonymous notes. The boys decide to call the Lisbon girls and communicate by playing records over the telephone for the girls to share and express their unrequited feelings.
Finally, the girls mysteriously send a message to the boys to come over at midnight, leading the boys to believe they will help the girls escape and elope with them. When they anxiously arrive, they meet Lux who is alone and smoking a cigarette. She invites them inside and tells them to wait for her sisters while she goes to start the car. As the boys wait, they briefly fantasize about being with the Lisbon sisters. Curious, they begin to explore the house and wander into the basement. They discover a freshly dead Bonnie hanging from a rope tied to the ceiling rafters. Disillusioned and horrified, the boys immediately flee back to their own homes.
In the morning, the authorities come for the dead bodies, as the girls had apparently made a suicide pact: Bonnie hanged herself, Therese overdosed on sleeping pills, and Lux died of carbon monoxide poisoning after sealing herself in the garage with the family's station wagon running. Mary attempts suicide by putting her head in the gas oven, but later it is revealed that her attempt fails. She is the only one whom the paramedics can save.
Mary continues to live for another month, but the community assumes she is as good as dead. Eventually, Mary successfully ends her life by taking an overdose of sleeping pills like Therese. Coincidentally, her death also marks the last day of the local cemetery workers' strike, so she and her sisters can all be properly buried together. Seemingly unsure how to react, the adults in the community go about their lives as if nothing happened. Local newspaper writer Linda Perl notes that the suicides come exactly one year after Cecilia's first attempt, and incorrectly describes the girls as tragic creatures so cut off from life, that death wasn't much of a change.
After the "suicide-free-for-all" and the funerals that followed after it, Mr. and Mrs. Lisbon quietly leave the suburbs, never to return. Thus, giving up on any attempt at living normal lives. The Lisbon house is cleaned out and any evidence of the girls' existence is erased. Once the house is emptied, it's quickly sold to a young couple from the Boston area. All the furniture, items and personal belongings of the Lisbons are either thrown out or sold in a garage sale. The narrators scavenge through the trash to collect much of the "evidence" to save as keepsakes and mementos they will treasure.
The boys never forget about the Lisbon sisters, however much they try. The five dead girls and their baffling fates forever haunt them and remain a source of mystery and lost innocence they reflect upon throughout their lives. The boys, now middle-aged men with wives and families of their own, lament the suicides as selfish acts from which they have never been able to emotionally recover. The novel closes with the men confessing that they had loved the girls, who hadn't heard them calling. And despite their life-long efforts, will never know the true motives behind the Lisbon sisters' actions to understand why they chose to be alone in suicide for all time.
Style and point of view
|This section does not cite any references (sources). (June 2015)|
The story is told by an anonymous narrator in the first person plural. The narrator is one or all of a group of adolescent boys who obsessed over the Lisbon girls from a distance in their youth, and now, as middle-aged men, continue to try to piece together the girls' story in hopes of finding a logical explanation as to what exactly brought the girls to their fates and why. Several of the boys are mentioned by name, but the narration never slips into first-person singular and the speaker's identity remains unclear.
The narrative looks back on the time when the boys knew and loved the Lisbon girls, who continue to haunt them in adulthood. The men keep in touch with each other to continue to be the "custodians of the girls' lives", and the subject of the girls always comes up when they "run into each other at cocktail parties or business luncheons."
Still in mourning, the group treasures a secret collection of "evidence" they have gathered and kept over the years ("Exhibits Nos. 1-97") concerning the Lisbons. It includes Cecilia's diary, family photographs and personal objects from the girls' rooms such as bras, hair brushes and rosaries. Due to their connection with the Lisbon girls, many of the objects acquire an almost religious quality.
Sofia Coppola wrote the screenplay and directed a 97-minute film version, filmed in Summer 1998, and released on May 19, 1999 at the Cannes Film Festival. It was then released on April 21, 2000, in New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles. The film starred Kirsten Dunst, James Woods, Kathleen Turner, and Josh Hartnett (as well as Danny DeVito in a short cameo). Much of the dialogue and narration is taken directly from the novel. The film was given positive reviews and is considered faithful to the book in spite of the latter's non-traditional narrative and was rated R for strong thematic elements involving teens.
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