Therapeutic effect

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Therapeutic effect refers to the response(s) after a treatment of any kind, the results of which are judged to be useful or favorable.[1][2][3] This is true whether the result was expected, unexpected, or even an unintended consequence. An adverse effect (including nocebo) is the converse and refers to harmful or undesired response(s). What constitutes a therapeutic effect versus a side effect is a matter of both the nature of the situation and the goals of treatment. No inherent difference separates therapeutic and undesired side effects; both responses are behavioral/physiologic changes that occur as a response to the treatment strategy or agent.[2]

Treatment scope[edit]

To maximize therapeutic effects (desired) and minimize side effects (undesired) requires recognition and quantification of the treatment in multiple dimensions. In the specific case of targeted pharmaceutical interventions a combination of therapies is often needed to achieve the desired results.[4]

Pharmacology examples[edit]

Non-pharmacology examples[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Definition of therapeutic". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  2. ^ a b Kramer, Thomas A. M. "Side Effects and Therapeutic Effects". MEDSCAPE.COM. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  3. ^ "Drug, pharmacology and therapeutic". pharmacorama.com. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  4. ^ Fitzgerald, Jonathan B; Schoeberl, Birgit; Nielsen, Ulrik B; Sorger, Peter K (2006). "Systems biology and combination therapy in the quest for clinical efficacy". Nature Chemical Biology. 2 (9): 458–466. doi:10.1038/nchembio817. ISSN 1552-4450. PMID 16921358.
  5. ^ Radha, Maharjan H.; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P. (2015). "Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review". Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. 5 (1): 21–26. doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.10.006. ISSN 2225-4110. PMC 4488101. PMID 26151005.
  6. ^ Didari, Tina (2015). "Effectiveness of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome: Updated systematic review with meta-analysis". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 21 (10): 3072–3084. doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i10.3072. ISSN 1007-9327. PMC 4356930. PMID 25780308.
  7. ^ Iorio, Raffaele; Damato, Valentina; Alboini, Paolo Emilio; Evoli, Amelia (12 October 2014). "Efficacy and safety of rituximab for myasthenia gravis: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Neurology. 262 (5): 1115–1119. doi:10.1007/s00415-014-7532-3. ISSN 0340-5354. PMID 25308632.
  8. ^ Sarris, Jerome; Murphy, Jenifer; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I.; Fava, Maurizio; Berk, Michael; Ng, Chee H. (2016). "Adjunctive Nutraceuticals for Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses". American Journal of Psychiatry. 173 (6): 575–587. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15091228. ISSN 0002-953X. PMID 27113121.
  9. ^ Morra, Mostafa Ebraheem; Elgebaly, Ahmed; Elmaraezy, Ahmed; Khalil, Adham M.; Altibi, Ahmed M. A.; Vu, Tran Le-Huy; Mostafa, Mostafa Reda; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hirayama, Kenji (5 July 2016). "Therapeutic efficacy and safety of Botulinum Toxin A Therapy in Trigeminal Neuralgia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". The Journal of Headache and Pain. 17 (1): 63. doi:10.1186/s10194-016-0651-8. ISSN 1129-2369. PMC 4932020. PMID 27377706.
  10. ^ Akyurekli, Celine; Le, Yevgeniya; Richardson, Richard B.; Fergusson, Dean; Tay, Jason; Allan, David S. (5 August 2014). "A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies on the Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Microvesicles". Stem Cell Reviews and Reports. 11 (1): 150–160. doi:10.1007/s12015-014-9545-9. ISSN 1550-8943. PMID 25091427.
  11. ^ Gu, Jenny; Strauss, Clara; Bond, Rod; Cavanagh, Kate (2015). "How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies". Clinical Psychology Review. 37: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006. ISSN 0272-7358. PMID 25689576.
  12. ^ Ginani, Fernanda; Soares, Diego Moura; Barreto, Mardem Portela e Vasconcelos; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão (13 March 2015). "Effect of low-level laser therapy on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation: a systematic review". Lasers in Medical Science. 30 (8): 2189–2194. doi:10.1007/s10103-015-1730-9. ISSN 0268-8921. PMID 25764448.
  13. ^ Fuller, Joel T; Hartland, Michael C; Maloney, Luke T; Davison, Kade (16 March 2018). "Therapeutic effects of aerobic and resistance exercises for cancer survivors: a systematic review of meta-analyses of clinical trials". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 52 (20): bjsports–2017–098285. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-098285. ISSN 0306-3674. PMID 29549149.
  14. ^ Lu, Zhihua; Lin, Guiting; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda; Wang, Chunxi; Lee, Yung-Chin; Lue, Tom F. (2017). "Low-intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment Improves Erectile Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". European Urology. 71 (2): 223–233. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2016.05.050. ISSN 0302-2838. PMID 27321373.