Irish: Tomás Ághas
12 January 1885|
Lispole, County Kerry, Ireland
|Died||25 September 1917
|Allegiance||Irish Republican Brotherhood
|Years of service||1913–1917|
Thomas Patrick Ashe (Irish: Tomás Pádraig Ághas; 12 January 1885 – 25 September 1917) was a member of the Gaelic League, the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) and a founding member of the Irish Volunteers.
He was born in Lispole, County Kerry, Ireland. Having entered De La Salle Training College, Waterford in 1905 he began his teaching career as principal of Corduff National School, Lusk, County Dublin, in 1908. He spent his last years before his death teaching children in Lusk, where he founded the award-winning Lusk Black Raven Pipe Band as well as Round Towers Lusk Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) club in 1906. During the summer of 1913, Douglas Hyde, president of the Gaelic League, attempted to expel him and other members.
The Irish Volunteers
Commanding the Finglas battalion of the Irish Volunteers, Ashe took a major part in the 1916 Easter Rising outside the capital city. Ashe was commandant of 5th battalion of the Dublin brigade; a force of 60–70 men engaged British forces around north County Dublin during the rising. Ashe was sent a messenger Mollie Adrian by Pearse ordered to hold the main road from Fairyhouse. She was sent back to report to Connolly, who returned an order to send 40 men to the GPO. He was to contact 1st battalion at Cross Guns Bridge, although he found no one there because vice-commandant Piaras Beaslai knew nothing of this plan. The area was dominated by the central feature of Broadstone station, at the end of the line to Athlone, an important British army barracks. But for some reason they decided not to occupy and garrison the station; similarly the Citizens Army had been confusingly required to withdraw from Mallin. The lack of co-operative communication was later discussed in Piaras Beaslai's books, the research for which included taking accounts from Thomas Ashe whilst they were incarcerated. The failure of inexperienced volunteers to properly co-ordinate their deployments was a critical factor at defeat. Ashe himself had only been appointed commandant shortly before Easter. They were armed only with a few rounds, about a dozen service rifles, a dozen Mausers, and a dozen Martini carbines; some had only a shotgun against well-equipped army regulars.
The battalion won a major victory in Ashbourne, County Meath where they engaged a much larger force capturing a significant quantity of arms and up to 20 Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) vehicles. Eleven RIC members, including County Inspector Alexander Gray, and two volunteers were killed during the five-and-a-half-hour battle. Twenty-four hours after the rising collapsed, Ashe's battalion surrendered on the orders of Patrick Pearse. On 8 May 1916, Ashe and Éamon de Valera were court-martialled and both were sentenced to death. The sentences were commuted to penal servitude for life. Ashe was imprisoned in Lewes Prison in England.
With the entry of the US into World War I in April 1917, the British government was put under more pressure to solve the 'Irish problem'. De Valera, Ashe and Thomas Hunter led a prisoner hunger strike on 28 May 1917 to add to this pressure. With accounts of prison mistreatment appearing in the Irish press and mounting protests in Ireland, Ashe and the remaining prisoners were freed on 18 June 1917 by Lloyd George as part of a general amnesty.
Death and legacy
Upon release, Ashe returned to Ireland and began a series of speaking engagements. In August 1917, Ashe was arrested and charged with sedition for a speech that he made in Ballinalee, County Longford where Michael Collins had also been speaking. He was detained at the Curragh but was then transferred to Mountjoy Prison in Dublin. He was convicted and sentenced to two years hard labour. Ashe and other prisoners, including Austin Stack, demanded prisoner of war status. As this protest evolved Ashe again went on hunger strike on 20 September 1917. On 25 September 1917, he died at the Mater Hospital after being force-fed by prison authorities. At the inquest into his death, the jury condemned the staff at the prison for the "inhuman and dangerous operation performed on the prisoner, and other acts of unfeeling and barbaric conduct".
Ashe's death had a significant impact on the country, increasing Republican recruitment. His body lay in state at Dublin City Hall, and was buried in Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin.
He was also a relative of Catherine Ashe, the paternal grandmother of American actor Gregory Peck, who emigrated to the United States in the 19th century. The Ashe Memorial Hall built in 1928, housing the Kerry County Museum, in Tralee is named after him while Nelson Street, also in Tralee, was renamed Ashe Street.
- List of people on stamps of Ireland
- The First Hunger Striker: Thomas Ashe 1917, Sean O Mahony. Publisher: 1916–1921 Club.
- Alcobia-Murphy, Shane (2005). Governing the Tongue. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-904303-60-2.
- C Townshend, "Easter 1916: The Irish Rebellion", (London 2006), p.169-70.
- Townshend, pp.215-219.
- Irish Bureau of Military History WS 261 (Piaras Beaslai)
- Townshend, p169.
- Coogan, Tim Pat. 1916: The Easter Rising. Cassel&co. p. 104.
- O'Connor, Ulick (2001). Michael Collins and the Troubles. Mainstream Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 1-84018-427-2.
- Boyle, J.F., The Irish Rebellion of 1916 (London 1916)
- Brennan-Whitmore, W.J., Dublin Burning. The Easter Rising from Behind the Barricades text (Dublin 1966)
- Coakley, J, 'Patrick Pearse and the "Noble Lie" of Irish Nationalism', Studies in Conflict and Violence, 62 (1983), p.119-34.
- Hobson, Bulmer, A Short History of the Irish Volunteers (Dublin 1918)
- O'Luing, Sean, I die in a good cause. A Study of Thomas Ashe, Idealist and Revolutionary (Tralee 1970)
- Lawless, joseph, 'The Fight at Ashbourne', Capuchin Annual (1966), p.307-16.
- Mulcahy, Richard, 'The Development of the Irish Volunteers 1916-22', An Cosantoir, 40(2) (1980), p.35-40; (3),p.67-71; (4), p.99-102.
- O'Malley, Ernie, On Another Man's Wound (London and Dublin 1936).
- Boyce, D.G., Nationalism in Ireland (London 3rd ed. 1995)
- Hayes-McCoy, G.A., 'A Military History of the 1916 Rising', in K.B.Nowlan (ed.), The Making of 1916. Studies in the History of the Rising (Dublin 1969)
- Martin, F.X., (ed.), Leaders and Men of the Easter Rising: Dublin 1916 (London 1967)
- Townshend, C, 'The Irish Republican Army and the Development of Guerilla Warfare 1916-21', English Historical Review 94 (1979), p.318-45.
- Townshend, C, 'The Suppression of the Easter Rising', Bullan, I(I)(1994), p.27-47.
|President of the
Irish Republican Brotherhood