Timeline of Samarkand

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

Prior to 14th century[edit]

  • 329 BCE - City sacked by Alexander III of Macedon.[1]
  • 260 CE - Sassanians in power (approximate date).
  • 712 - City taken by forces of Umayyad Caliphate under Qutayba ibn Muslim.[1]
  • 751 - Papermaking begins.[2]
  • 806 - Led by Rafi ibn al-Layth, Samarkand revolted against Ali ibn Isa ibn Mahan, Governor of Khurasan due to his oppressive taxation.[3]
  • 819 - Samanid rule of Samarkand begins. Nuh ibn Asad was appointed authority over the city of Samarkand by Caliph Al-Ma'mun's governor of Khurasan, Ghassan ibn 'Abbad, as a reward for his support against the revolt.[4]
  • 841/842- After the death of Nuh ibn Asad, Abdallah, the governor of Khurasan, appointed two of Nuh's brothers, Yahya and Ahmad, to jointly rule over Samarkand.[4]
  • 864/865 - Upon his father Ahmad's death, Nasr I inherits Samarkand.[4]
  • 892 - Isma'il ibn Ahmad, Nasr's brother, moves the capital to Bukhara after Nasr's death.
  • 914 - Nasr II becomes amir of the Samanids after his father Ahmad Samani dies, sparking a revolt in Samarkand, led by his great-uncle Ishaq ibn Ahmad.[4]
  • 991 - Fa'iq is given governorship of Samarkand by Samanid amir Nuh II.[4]
  • 999 - Isma'il Muntasir, son of Nuh II, briefly recaptures Samarkand from the Karakhanids before having to abandon it to flee from them, thus definitively ending the Samanid rule of Samarkand.[4]
  • 1000 - Karakhanid Nasr ibn Ali, is given the large central area of Transoxiana, including Samarkand and Bukhara as an appanage (approximate date).
  • 1052 - Tamghach Khan Ibrahim, son of Nasr, won control of a large part of Transoxania, and made Samarkand the capital.[5]
  • 1066 - Afrosiab madrasa built by Ibrahim.[6]
  • 1089 - During the reign of Ibrahim's grandson Ahmad ibn Khidr, at the request of the ulama of Transoxiana, the Seljuks entered and took control of Samarkand, together with the domains belonging to the Western Khanate. The Western Karakhanids Khanate became a vassal of the Seljuks.[5]
  • 1141 - After Yelü Dashi's victory over the Seljuks in the Battle of Qatwan north of Samarkand, the Karakhanids became vassals of the Kara-Khitan Khanate. Yelü Dashi spent ninety days in Samarkand, accepting the loyalty of Muslim nobles and appointing Ibrahim Tabghach Khan as the new ruler of Samarkand.[7]
  • 1158 - Khwarezm-shah Il-Arslan besieged the Karakhanids in Samarkand at the behest of the Qarluks who had been persecuted by them. In the end a peace was mediated where Chaghrï Khan was forced to take back the Qarluk leaders and restore them to their former positions.[8]
  • 1210 - Ala ad-Din Muhammad II, Shah of the Khwarezmian Empire takes Samarkand.[5]
  • 1212 - Supported by Uthman Ulugh Sultan, its last Kara-Khanid ruler, the city of Samarkand revolted, killing 8,000-10,000 Khwarezmians living there. Muhammad, in retaliation, sacked the city and executed 10,000 citizens of Samarkand, including Uthman.[9]
  • 1221 - City besieged by forces of Mongol Genghis Khan.[1][10]

14th-19th centuries[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st century[edit]

  • 2001 - Population: 361,339.[17]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Samarkand", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424 
  2. ^ Dard Hunter (1978). "Chronology". Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft. Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-23619-3. 
  3. ^ Bosworth, C. E. (1995). "Rāfi' b. al-Layth b. Naṣr b. Sayyār". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume VIII: Ned–Sam. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 385–386. ISBN 90-04-09834-8. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Frye, R.N. (1975). "The Sāmānids". In Frye, R.N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 136–161. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. 
  5. ^ a b c Davidovich, E. A. (1998), "Chapter 6 The Karakhanids", in Asimov, M.S.; Bosworth, C.E., History of Civilisations of Central Asia, 4 part I, UNESCO Publishing, pp. 119–144, ISBN 92-3-103467-7 
  6. ^ "Samarkand" (PDF). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 2000. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  7. ^ Biran, Michael. The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005, p.44.
  8. ^ Biran, Michael. The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  9. ^ Rafis Abazov, Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Central Asia, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 43.
  10. ^ Henry Lansdell (1885). "Chronology of Russian Central Asia". Russian Central Asia. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington – via Hathi Trust. 
  11. ^ a b c d e ArchNet.org. "Samarkand". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  12. ^ "A history of cities in 50 buildings", The Guardian, UK, 2015 
  13. ^ a b c "Samarkand", Russia, Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1914, OCLC 1328163 
  14. ^ "Russia: Principal Towns". Statesman's Year-Book. London: Macmillan and Co. 1890. 
  15. ^ a b Railway News. UK. 16 December 1905. 
  16. ^ "Russia: Principal Towns: Central Asia". Statesman's Year-Book. London: Macmillan and Co. 1921. 
  17. ^ "Population of capital cities and cities of 100,000 or more inhabitants". Demographic Yearbook 2011. United Nations Statistics Division. 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century
  • Michael Myers Shoemaker (1904), "Samarkand", The heart of the Orient: saunterings through Georgia, Armenia, Persia, Turkomania, and Turkestan, to the vale of Paradise, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons 
  • William Eleroy Curtis (1911), "Samarkand", Turkestan, New York: Hodder & Stoughton 
  • E.G. Kemp (1911), "Samarkand", The Face of Manchuria, Korea, Russian Turkestan, New York: Duffield 
  • Schellinger and Salkin, ed. (1996). "Samarkand". International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. UK: Routledge. ISBN 9781884964046. 
Published in the 21st century
  • "Samarkand". Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2009. 

External links[edit]