Tracheal agenesis

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Tracheal agenesis

Tracheal agenesis is a rare birth defect[1] with a prevalence of less than 1 in 50,000,[2] in which the trachea fails to develop. The defect is normally fatal,[2][3] although occasional cases have been reported of long-term survival following surgical intervention.[3][4]

There are three main types of tracheal agenesis, designated Types I, II and III.[2]

In 2013, a case was reported of a South Korean child with tracheal agenesis who had been successfully treated after having been kept alive in an intensive care unit for the first two and a half years of her life. She then had an artificially created trachea implanted that had been created by tissue engineering using her own stem cells.[5][6] The patient however later died from complications.[7]


  1. ^ Chiu, T.; Cuevas, D.; Cuevas, L.; Monteiro, C. (1990). "Tracheal agenesis". Southern Medical Journal. 83 (8): 925–930. doi:10.1097/00007611-199008000-00018. PMID 2200137.
  2. ^ a b c Ergun, S.; Tewfik, T.; Daniel, S. (2011). "Tracheal agenesis: A rare but fatal congenital anomaly". McGill journal of medicine : MJM : an international forum for the advancement of medical sciences by students. 13 (1): 10. PMC 3277332. PMID 22363177.
  3. ^ a b Watanabe, T.; Okuyama, H.; Kubota, A.; Kawahara, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Ueno, T.; Saka, R.; Morishita, Y. (2008). "A case of tracheal agenesis surviving without mechanical ventilation after external esophageal stenting". Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 43 (10): 1906–1908. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.06.013. PMID 18926230.
  4. ^ Fuchimoto, Y.; Mori, M.; Takasato, F.; Tomita, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Shimojima, N.; Hoshino, K.; Koinuma, G.; Morikawa, Y. (2010). "A long-term survival case of tracheal agenesis: Management for tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal reconstruction". Pediatric Surgery International. 27 (1): 103–106. doi:10.1007/s00383-010-2716-0. PMID 20857299.
  5. ^ Peter Murray (2013-05-06). "Girl Receives Engineered Trachea Treated With Her Own Stem Cells". Singularity Hub. Retrieved 2013-05-20.
  6. ^ Katie Moisse (2013-04-30). "Toddler Born Without a Windpipe Gets Artificial Trachea". ABC News. Retrieved 2013-05-20.
  7. ^ Moisse, Katie (8 July 2013). "Girl Dies After Groundbreaking Trachea Transplant". ABC News. Retrieved 9 February 2016.

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