Trần Hiến Tông
|Trần Hiến Tông
|Emperor of Đại Việt|
|Emperor of Trần dynasty|
|Predecessor||Trần Minh Tông|
|Successor||Trần Dụ Tông|
Thăng Long, Đại Việt
|Spouse||Imperial Consort Hiển Trinh|
|Father||Trần Minh Tông|
|Mother||Imperial Consort Anh Tư|
Trần Hiến Tông (1319–1341), given name Trần Vượng (陳旺), was the sixth emperor of the Trần dynasty who reigned Đại Việt from 1329 to 1341. Enthroned by Minh Tông when he was only a ten-year-old boy, Hiến Tông ruled Đại Việt with the regent of the Retired Emperor Minh Tông during his thirteen years of reign. The Emperor died at the age of 23 and leaving no heir, he was succeeded by his younger brother Trần Hạo. The decease of Hiến Tông and his father afterward marked the turning-point in history of Trần dynasty when the country began to fall into the trouble times.
Background and during Minh Tông's reign
Hiến Tông was born in 1319 as Trần Vượng, the first son of Emperor Trần Minh Tông and his imperial consort Anh Tư. At that time, the birth of prince Trần Vượng ignited a fierce struggle in royal court between two parties, one supported prince Trần Vượng for the position of Minh Tông's successor, the other suggested that the crown prince must be reserved for the Queen's son. This struggle eventually led to the death of the Queen's father Trần Quốc Chẩn who was also a prominent general with many victories in battle.
In 1329, Minh Tông decided to pass the throne to prince Trần Vượng, now emperor Hiến Tông, and took the position of Retired Emperor (Vietnamese: Thái thượng hoàng). Trần Vượng was only ten at his coronation.
According to Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Hiến Tông was known for his intelligence and righteousness. During the period that the Emperor and Retired Emperor co-ruled, Đại Việt people was able to witness the last period of real prosperity and peace in history of Trần dynasty. Although still having a successful reign with the assistance of capable royal court, Hiến Tông had to face with the first signs of decline such as the deceases of many important and experienced mandarins like Trần Nhật Duật (1330), Trần Khắc Chung (1330), Đoàn Nhữ Hài (died in campaign against Laos, 1335) and Trần Khánh Dư (1339).
Continuing foreign policy created by Anh Tông, Minh Tông and Hiến Tông kept a friendly relation with Yuan dynasty while reinforced southern and western border to deal with the increasing hostility from Laos and kingdom of Champa. But different than the former period, military campaigns during the reign of Hiến Tông often experienced failure, for example the 1335 campaign:219,229 led by Minh Tông in person against Laotian force was finally defeated and Trần royal court lost an important figure, Đoàn Nhữ Hài, who was drowned in action.
Hiến Tông died on 6 June of lunar calendar, 1341 at the age of only 23 and leaving no heir. Minh Tông therefore passed the throne to his tenth son, Trần Hạo, now Dụ Tông. During his reign, Hiến Tông had one era name which was Khai Hựu (開佑, prosperity), other than his predecessors, the Emperor had no posthumous name. Despite his natural endowments, the achievement of Hiến Tông during the reign was difficult to discuss because of the fact that his father still held the royal court in the position of retired emperor.
- Hiến Tông had one wife, imperial consort Hiển Trinh who was daughter of the Prince Huệ Túc Trần Đại Niên.
- Ngô 1993, p. 240
- Trần 1971, p. 67
- Chapuis 1995, p. 88
- Ngô 1993, pp. 236–237
- Ngô 1993, p. 237
- Ngô 1993, p. 242
- Ngô 1993, p. 244
- Ngô 1993, p. 246
- Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
- Ngô, Sỹ Liên (1993), Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư (in Vietnamese) (Nội các quan bản ed.), Hanoi: Social Science Publishing House
- National Bureau for Historical Record (1998), Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục (in Vietnamese), Hanoi: Education Publishing House
- Trần, Trọng Kim (1971), Việt Nam sử lược (in Vietnamese), Saigon: Center for School Materials
- Chapuis, Oscar (1995), A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-29622-7
Trần Hiến TôngBorn: 1319 Died: 1341
Trần Minh Tông
|Emperor of Trần dynasty
Trần Dụ Tông