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Trichoglossum hirsutum.alan.jpg
Trichoglossum hirsutum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Geoglossomycetes
Order: Geoglossales
Family: Geoglossaceae
Genus: Trichoglossum
Boud. (1885)
Type species
Trichoglossum hirsutum
(Pers.) Boud. (1907)

Trichoglossum is a genus of fungi in the family Geoglossaceae. They are commonly called hairy earth tongues. The type species is Trichoglossum hirsutum.[1]

Members of the genus Trichoglossum have tiny hairs known as setae on the spore bearing surface. The related genus Geoglossum lacks hairs on the spore bearing surface.


The genus Trichoglossum was created by Émile Boudier,[2] who constructed the new genus to include species of Geoglossum bearing prominent setae. Numerous authors have examined this genus since its creation,[3][4][5] with many new species and varieties described. Index Fungorum currently lists 47 names, including forms and varieties, while Kirk et al. (2008)[6] acknowledge 19 species. Published molecular phylogenetic research also supports the genus as a well-supported clade.[7][8][9]


Trichoglossum species are found in woodlands in North America and Europe, as well as Asia,[4] Australasia,[10] India,[11] and South America.[12][13]



  1. ^ "Index Fungorum - Trichoglossum Genus". 
  2. ^ Boudier, É. (1885). "Nouvelle classification naturelle des Discomycetese charnus connus generalement sous le nom de Pezizales". Bulletin Societe Mycologique de France. 1: 91–120. 
  3. ^ Durand, E.J. (1908). "The Geoglossaceae of North America". Annales Mycologici. 6: 387–477. OCLC 1481332. 
  4. ^ a b Imai, S. (1941). "Geoglossaceae Japoniae". Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture. Hokkaido Imperial University. 45: 155–264. 
  5. ^ Mains, E.B. (1954). "North American Species of Geoglossum and Trichoglossum". Mycologia. 46: 586–631. JSTOR 4547871. 
  6. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8. 
  7. ^ Sandnes, A.C.S. (2006). Phylogenetic relationships among species and genera of Geoglossaceae (Helotiales) based on ITS and LSU nrDNA sequences (Masters). University of Oslo. 
  8. ^ Schoch CL, Wang Z, Townsend JP, Spatafora JW (2009). "Geoglossomycetes cl. nov., Geoglossales ord. nov. and taxa above class rank in the Ascomycota Tree of Life". Persoonia. 22: 129–38. doi:10.3767/003158509X461486. PMC 2776753Freely accessible. PMID 19915689. 
  9. ^ Hustad VP, Miller AN, Moingeon JM, Priou JP (2011). "Inclusion of Nothomitra in Geoglossomycetes" (PDF). Mycosphere. 2: 646–654. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/2/6/5. 
  10. ^ Spooner BM (1987). "Helotiales of Australasia: Geoglossaceae, Orbiliaceae, Sclerotiniaceae, Hyaloscyphaceae". Bibliotheca Mycologica. 116: 1–711. ISSN 0067-8066.  Maas Geesteranus RA (1965). "Geoglossaceae of India and Adjacent Countries". Persoonia. 4 (1): 19–46. ISSN 0031-5850. oai:ARNO:532470. 
  11. ^ Maas Geesteranus, RA (1965). "Geoglossaceae of India and Adjacent Countries". Persoonia. 4 (1): 19–46. 
  12. ^ Gamundi I (1979). "Subantarctic Geoglossaceae II". Sydowia. 32: 86–98. ISSN 0082-0598. 
  13. ^ Hladki AI, Romero AI (2009). "La familia Geoglossaceae s. str. (Helotiales) en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina)". Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica. 44 (3–4): 249–255. ISSN 1851-2372. 

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