From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Trimonoecious)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Trimonoecy (also called polygamomonoecious) is when male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers are on the same plant.[1] Trimonoecy is considered rare.[2]

It is a monomorphic sexual system along with monoecy, gynomonoecy, and andromonoecy. It is hypothesized that trimonoecy originated from gynomonoecy.[3]


Trimonoecy occurs in plant families like Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Fabaceae, Orchidaceae, Palmae, and more.[4] It is rare in the family Commelinaceae.[5]: 309 

Trimonoecious species[edit]

Trimonoecious species include.


  1. ^ "Glossary Details - The William & Lynda Steere Herbarium". Retrieved 2021-09-10.
  2. ^ a b Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Demarco, Diego; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria (2011-08-06). "Evidence of trimonoecy in Phyllanthaceae: Phyllanthus acidus". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 296 (3): 283. doi:10.1007/s00606-011-0494-3. ISSN 1615-6110.
  3. ^ Torices, Rubén; Méndez, Marcos; Gómez, José María (2011). "Where do monomorphic sexual systems fit in the evolution of dioecy? Insights from the largest family of angiosperms". New Phytologist. 190 (1): 234–248. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03609.x. ISSN 1469-8137.
  4. ^ Batygina, T. B. (2019-04-23). Embryology of Flowering Plants: Terminology and Concepts, Vol. 3: Reproductive Systems. CRC Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4398-4436-6.
  5. ^ Wilson, Karen L.; Morrison, David A. (2000-05-19). Monocots: Systematics and Evolution: Systematics and Evolution. Csiro Publishing. ISBN 978-0-643-09929-6.
  6. ^ Preedy, Victor R.; Watson, Ronald Ross (2011-03-31). Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention. Academic Press. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-12-375689-3.
  7. ^ Percival, M. (2013-10-22). Floral Biology. Elsevier. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4832-9302-8.
  8. ^ Urbani, M. (2009-09-14). "Notes on the Distribution of Sexual Polymorphism in Some Italian Populations of Thymelaea Hirsuta (L.) Endl. (Thymelaeaceae)". Plant Biosystem. doi:10.1080/11263509609439683.