Tymphaea or Tymphaia (Greek: Τυμφαία) was a region in Ancient Greece, specifically Epirus, inhabited by the Tymphaioi, a northwestern Greek tribe that belonged to the Molossian tribal state, or koinon. The region was annexed by and became a province of the Kingdom of Macedon, specifically Upper Macedonia, in the 4th century BC.
Tymphaea and its Greek inhabitants, the Tymphaioi, were named after Mount Tymphe. In circa 350 BC, Tymphaea was conquered by Phillip II (r. 359–336 BC) and incorporated into the Kingdom of Macedon as part of Upper Macedonia. The most famous native of Tymphaea was Polyperchon, regent of Alexander III (r. 336–323 BC). He was the son of Simmias who was the ruler of the Tymphaioi in circa 370 BC.
- Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. 276: "As we leave the coastal area, we may turn first to the middle and upper Haliacmon valley, where Elimeotis, Tymphaea and Orestis were inhabited by Epirotic tribes, or more correctly 'Molossian' tribes if the account in Strabo was derived from Hecataeus."
- Hammond 1993, pp. 132–133: "Further, the tribes which Strabo termed "Epirotic" — Orestai, Tymphaioi, Elimiotai, Lynkestai and Pelagones — are likely to have spoken the same dialect as the Molossians, to whom they were in some sense related."
- Hammond 1994, p. 206: "When Philip annexed Elimea, Orestis, and Lyncus and territory up to Lake Lychnitis, reorganized the administration, and planted towns such as Heraclea Lyncestis, he was in a position to recruit and train infantry from these areas, ready for service perhaps by 352 B.C.; and similarly from Tymphaea, annexed probably in 350 B.C., infantry ready for service by 345 B.C."
- Hammond 1993, [p. 141] "We see here the origins of the Tymphaioi (named after Mt. Tymphe) Orestai, Lynkestai and Pelagones, who practiced this way of life and were each a cluster of tribes."; [p. 143] "... the "Tymphaioi" were so named from the mountain Tymphe."
- Hatzopoulos 1996, p. 249: "Finally, the fourth meris gathered the Upper Macedonian ethne (Lynkestai, Tymphaioi, Atintanes), to which Pelagonia (presumably with Derriopos), in other words the western part of the former strategia of Paionia, was added."
- Pleket, Stroud & Strubbe 1994, p. 124: "... Polyperchon, one of Alexander's generals and later regent (319 B.C.), son of Simmias who ruled the Tymphaioi ca. 370 B.C."
- Boardman, John; Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History - The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries B.C., Part 3: Volume 3 (Second Edition). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23447-6.
- Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière (1994). Collected Studies. III. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Hakkert.
- Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière (1993). Studies Concerning Epirus and Macedonia Before Alexander. Amsterdam: Hakkert.
- Hatzopoulos, Miltiades V. (1996). Macedonian Institutions Under the Kings: A Historical and Epigraphic Study, Volume 1. Athens: Kentron Hellēnikēs kai Rōmaïkēs Archaiotētos. ISBN 978-960-7094-90-2.
- Pleket, H.W.; Stroud, R.S.; Strubbe, Johan (1994). Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, Volumes 44–45. Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben.