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For the part of a plant, see Umbel.
Developer(s) Structured Dynamics, Ontotext
Initial release 16 July 2008
Stable release UMBEL 1.20 / 21 April 2015[1]
Written in OWL 2, SKOS
Type Semantic Web, linked data
License Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

UMBEL, short for Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer, is an extracted subset of OpenCyc, providing the Cyc data in an RDF ontology based on SKOS and OWL 2.

UMBEL has two main functions:[2]

  • It is an upper ontology of about 35,000 reference concepts, designed to provide common mapping points for relating different ontologies or schema to one another, and
  • A vocabulary for aiding that ontology mapping, including expressions of likelihood relationships distinct from exact identity or equivalence. This vocabulary is also designed for interoperable domain ontologies.
Class linkages within the Linking Open Data datasets

UMBEL is a class structure used in Linked Data, along with OpenCyc, YAGO, and the DBpedia ontology. Because it is a strict subset of OpenCyc concepts and relationships, mappings to UMBEL can take advantage of the reasoning engines within Cyc.

Including OpenCyc, UMBEL has about 48,000 formal mappings to DBpedia, PROTON, GeoNames, and, and provides linkages to more than 2 million Wikipedia pages (English version). All of its reference concepts and mappings are organized under a hierarchy of 33 different "super types",[3] which are mostly disjoint from one another. As of version 1.05, UMBEL was split into "core" and "geo" modules (for when the GeoNames mappings are not used).[4]

UMBEL was first released in July 2008. Version 1.00 was released in February 2011.[5] Its current release is version 1.20.[6]

UMBEL is maintained by Structured Dynamics.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "UMBEL Version 1.20 Released". UMBEL Web site. 21 April 2015. 
  2. ^ Bergman, M.K. "UMBEL: A Subject Concepts Reference Layer for the Web". Retrieved 2010-04-02. 
  3. ^ See Annex G in the UMBEL specifications.
  4. ^ See the [1] release announcement.
  5. ^ See the UMBEL v 1.00 release announcement.
  6. ^ See
  7. ^ See

External links[edit]