United States Food Administration
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The U. S. Food Administration was the agency responsible for the administration of the U.S. army overseas and allies' food reserves during the United States participation in World War I. One of its important tasks was the stabilization of the price of wheat on the U.S. market. It was established by Executive Order 2679-A of August 10, 1917, pursuant to the Food and Fuel Control Act.
During the time of the administration, the United States was short of nearly everything as many commodities were being sold to their allies. All citizens were asked to donate any weapons, horses, and ammunition they possessed to help supply the army, with a small hope of the items being returned. The rationing was done during this time of National need so that food for soldiers, and citizens, wouldn't be an issue. Concepts such as "meatless Mondays" and "wheatless Wednesdays" were also implemented to help ration food, so that the government could prioritise the war effort.
The appointment of Hoover
Woodrow Wilson realised he would need a dynamic leader to ensure the Food administration was effective. His advisor, Edward House suggested Herbert Hoover who had previously run the Commission for Relief in Belgium. Walter Hines Page, the British ambassador, endorsed this choice and Wilson, a Democrat agreed although Hoover was a Republican. Hoover accepted the position only on the basis that he would have a completely free hand as regards the Washington bureaucracy, which in particular referred to David F. Houston, the Secretary of Agriculture. Despite initial resistance Houston acquiesced and Hoover was appointed.
The administration employed its Grain Corporation, organized under the provisions of the Food Control Act of August 10, 1917, as an agency for the purchase and sale of foodstuff. Having done transactions in the size of $7 billion it was rendered obsolete by the armistice in Europe. President Woodrow Wilson promoted its transition in a new agency for the support of the reconstruction of Europe. It became the American Relief Administration, approved by an Act (Public, No. 274, 65th Congress) on February 25, 1919.
Poster advertising issued
- Buschman, Neil O. (2013). "The United States Food Administration During World War I: The Rise of Activist Government Through Food Control During Mobilization for Total War". Auburn University Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Auburn University. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
- Frank M. Surface / Raymond L. Bland: American Food in the World War and Reconstruction Period. Operations of the Organizations Under the Direction of Herbert Hoover 1914 to 1924, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1931
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Food Administration.|
- Wilson orders Hoover to start, The New York Times, June 17, 1917, p. 1
- Watson S. Moore, How wheat was saved to feed allied folk, The New York Times, January 5, 1919, p. 80
- Sow the Seeds of Victory! Posters from the Food Administration During World War I
- Saving Food, Saving Lives: World War 1 Food Posters
- The Wisconsin Food Administration responds to national food shortages in 1918, Wisconsin Historical Society
- Works by United States Food Administration at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about United States Food Administration at Internet Archive
- Works by United States Food Administration at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)