User:Boborb44/Acute infectious thyroiditis

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Project Proposal[edit]

Acute Infectious Thyroiditis Summary/Introduction The thyroid is traditionally very resistant to infection which can be attributed to the thyroids relatively high amount of iodine in the tissue as well as its high vascularity, lymphatic drainage and its location away from many external structures. Despite all this, a persistent fisula from the pyriform sinus may make the left lobe of the thyroid susceptible to abscess formation. Acute Infectious Thyroiditis is an extremely rare form of thyroiditis that accounts for approximately 0.1 – 0.7% of all thyroid diseases [1]. Acute Infectious Thyroiditis is often caused by a bacterial infection, most commonly in an immunocompromised host. The thyroid can be infected by any bacterium including Staphlococcus, Pneumococcus, Salmonella or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Acute Infectious Thyroiditis is one of the six subtypes of thyroiditis. It is also known of as, Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis or Microbial Inflammatory Thyroiditis [2].

History[edit]

  • Discovery
  • People involved (discovers)
  • How they discovered it (test methods, tools/technology at that time)
  • Statistics on how much of the population had it over time

Symptoms[edit]

  • Tenderness and pain in the area of the affected lobe (commonly left lobe)
  • Pain/difficulty swallowing
  • Pain in neck or ear
  • Fever, chills depending on the virulence

Causes[edit]

  • Congenital abnormalities of piriform sinus
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Immunocompromised host
  • Congenital pyriform sinus fistula [3]
  • Repeated fine needle aspirates

Diagnosis[edit]

  • Generally, individuals with acute infectious thyroiditis are much sicker than those with subacute thyroiditis. There is more severe, localized swelling and localized reddening of the skin.
  • Blood tests of thyroid function, including TSH, T4 & T3 are usually normal [4]
  • Ultrasonographic examination often shows the abscess or swelling in thyroid gland
  • A gallium scan will be positive
  • Barium swallow showing fistula connecting the piriform sinus and left lobe
  • Elevated white blood cell count
  • Fine-Needle Aspiration
  • Culture and sensitivity
  • Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

Treatment[edit]

  • Antibiotics
  • Drainage of abscess
  • Surgical removal of fistula
  • Possible thyroid lobectomy [5]

Statistics[edit]

  • How many of world population have it today vs. past
  • Gender (Male vs. Female)
  • Age (infant, adolescence, adult…)
  • Geographically (comparing different country’s populations who have it)
  • Cure statistics/rates
  • Death statistics/rates

Topic Divisions[edit]

  • Evan Roush - Treatment
  • Bryan Bobo - Causes, Diagnosis
  • John Smith - Statistics
  • Heather Caputo - History, Symptoms

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lazarus, John, and James Hennessey. "Acute and Subacute, and Reidel’s Thyroiditis." Ed. Leslie J. De Groot. The Thyroid And Its Diseases. 6th ed. New York: Elsevier, 1996.
  2. ^ Melmed, Shlomo, Kenneth S. Polonsky, and P. R. Larsen. "Acute InfectiousThyroiditis." Willams Textbook of Endocrinology. By Henry M. Kronenberg. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2008. 945-47.
  3. ^ Park, Sun W., Moon H. Han, Myung H. Sung, In O. Kim, Kwang H. Kim, Kee H. Chang, and Man C. Han. "Neck Infection Associated with Pyriform Sinus Fistula: Imaging Findings." AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 21 (2000): 817-22.
  4. ^ Slatosky, J., B. Shipton, and H. Wahba. "Thyroiditis: Differential Diagnosis and Management." Am. Fam. Physician 61.4 (2000): 1047-052. [4] "Thyroid.org: Thyroiditis Brochure." American Thyroid Association: Thyroid Cancer, Hyperthyroid, Hypothyroid, Thyroiditis, Thyroid Clinical Trials, Thyroid Patient Health Information.
  5. ^ "Acute Infectious Thyroiditis: What Patients Need to Know." About.com Thyroid Disease.