User:Brigade Piron/sandbox3

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The decolonisation of Africa was...

Background[edit]

Beginnings of colonial rule in Africa[edit]

Colonial rule and early resistance[edit]

World War II, "second colonial occupation" and the Cold War[edit]

Effects of World War II[edit]

The "Second Colonial Occupation" after 1945[edit]

Cold War geopolitics[edit]

Emergence of African nationalism[edit]

Origins[edit]

Ideology and Organisation[edit]

  • Pan-Africanism

Leadership[edit]

Towards independence[edit]

African nationalism and democratisation[edit]

Wars of independence[edit]

Independence[edit]

Celebrations and commemoration[edit]

  • "Onile Gogoro" (hairstyle) in Nigeria

List of countries receiving independence[edit]

From the United Kingdom[edit]

State created Date of independence First leaders Original flag Notes
Kingdom of Egypt
(modern-day Arab Republic of Egypt)
February 28, 1922 Adli Yakan Pasha (Prime Minister) Flag of Egypt (1922–1958).svg *Egyptian Revolution of 1919
Republic of the Sudan
(modern-day Sudan and South Sudan)
January 1, 1956 A Sovereignty Council
Ismail al-Azhari (Prime Minister)
Flag of Sudan (1956-1970).svg Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Commonwealth Realm of Ghana
(modern-day Republic of Ghana)
March 6, 1957 Kwame Nkrumah (Prime Minister) Flag of Ghana.svg Gold Coast
Federation of Nigeria
(modern-day Federal Republic of Nigeria)
October 1, 1960 Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (Prime Minister) Flag of Nigeria.svg Colonial Nigeria. Not totally independent until 1 October 1963.
Tanganyika
(modern-day Tanzania)
December 9, 1961 Julius Nyerere (President) Flag of Tanganyika.svg Tanganyika Territory
Sultanate of Zanzibar
(modern-day Tanzania)
December 10, 1963 Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah Flag of the Sultanate of Zanzibar (1963).svg
Commonwealth Realm of Uganda
(modern-day Uganda)
October 9, 1962 Milton Obote (Prime Minister) Flag of Uganda.svg Uganda Protectorate
Commonwealth Realm of Kenya
(modern-day Kenya)
December 12, 1963 Jomo Kenyatta (Prime Minister) Flag of Kenya.svg Kenya Colony, Mau Mau Uprising
Commonwealth Realm of Malawi
(modern-day Malawi)
July 6, 1964 Hastings Banda (Prime Minister) Flag of Malawi.svg Nyasaland and the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Republic of Zambia October 24, 1964 Kenneth Kaunda (President) Flag of Zambia (1964-1996).svg Northern Rhodesia and the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Commonwealth Realm of The Gambia
(modern-day Gambia)
February 18, 1965 Dawda Jawara (Prime Minister) Flag of The Gambia.svg Gambia Colony and Protectorate
Rhodesia
(modern-day Zimbabwe)
November 11, 1965 Ian Smith (Prime Minister) Flag of Rhodesia (1964).svg Southern Rhodesia
Republic of Botswana September 30, 1966 Seretse Khama (President) Flag of Botswana.svg Bechuanaland Protectorate
Kingdom of Lesotho October 4, 1966 King Moshoeshoe II
Leabua Jonathan (Prime Minister)
Flag of Lesotho (1966).svg Basutoland
Mauritius March 12, 1968 Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (Prime Minister) Flag of Mauritius.svg British Mauritius

From France[edit]

State created Date of independence First leaders Original flag Notes
Kingdom of Tunisia
(modern-day Republic of Tunisia)
March 20, 1956 King Muhammad VIII Pre-1999 Flag of Tunisia.svg French protectorate of Tunisia
Kingdom of Morocco April 7, 1956 Sultan Mohammed V Flag of Morocco.svg Protectorate of Morocco
Guinea October 2, 1958 Ahmed Sékou Touré Flag of Guinea.svg French Guinea, part of French West Africa
Togo April 27, 1960 Sylvanus Olympio Flag of Togo.svg German Togoland, later French Togoland
Mali June 20, 1960 Modibo Keïta Flag of Mali 1959-1961.svg Mali Federation
Senegal June 20, 1960 Léopold Sédar Senghor Flag of Senegal.svg Mali Federation
Malagasy Republic June 26, 1960 Philibert Tsiranana Flag of Madagascar.svg Malagasy Uprising and French Madagascar
Republic of Dahomey
(modern-day Benin)
August 1, 1960 Hubert Maga Flag of Benin.svg French Dahomey
Republic of Niger August 3, 1960 Hamani Diori (President) Flag of Niger.svg Colony of Niger
Republic of Upper Volta
(modern-day Burkina Faso)
August 5, 1960 Maurice Yaméogo (President) Flag of Upper Volta.svg French Upper Volta
Republic of Côte d'Ivoire August 7, 1960 Félix Houphouët-Boigny Flag of Côte d'Ivoire.svg
Chad August 11, 1960 François Tombalbaye (President) Flag of Chad.svg French Chad
Central African Republic August 13, 1960 David Dacko (President) Flag of the Central African Republic.svg Ubangi-Shari
Republic of Congo-Brazzaville August 15, 1960 Fulbert Youlou (President)
Jacques Opangault (Prime Minister)
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg French Congo
Gabon August 17, 1960 Léon M'ba (Prime Minister) Flag of Gabon.svg
Mauritania November 28, 1960 Moktar Ould Daddah (President) Flag of Mauritania.svg
Algeria July 3, 1962 Ahmed Ben Bella (President) Flag of Algeria.svg French Algeria and the Algerian War (1954-62)
Comoros July 6, 1975 Ahmed Abdallah (President) Flag of the Comoros (1963 to 1975).svg Unilateral secession from France
Djibouti June 27, 1977 Hassan Gouled Aptidon (President) Flag of Djibouti.svg French Somaliland

From Belgium[edit]

State created Date of independence First leaders Original flag Notes
Republic of Congo-Léopoldville
(modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo)
June 30, 1960 Joseph Kasa-Vubu (President)
Patrice Lumumba (Prime Minister)
Flag of Congo-Léopoldville (1960-1963).svg Colonial rule began in the Congo in 1885 when, on the private initiative of King Leopold II of Belgium, the Congo Basin was annexed and became the notionally-independent Congo Free State. In 1907, amid international pressure, Belgium annexed the colony to create the Belgian Congo.[1] Belgian colonial rule in the Congo was characterised by a "colonial trinity" (trinité coloniale) of state, missionary and private company interests although large welfare programmes were also launched in the aftermath of World War II.[2]

In the 1950s, numerous pro-independence parties evolved in the Congo, often divided along ethnic lines and, as the Belgians prepared to withdraw, ethnic violence escalated. On 30 June 1960, the Belgian Congo became independent as the Republic of the Congo although the Belgian government hoped to retain many of its interests in the country. Between 1960 to 1965, the country was racked by violence, secession and political turbulence known as the Congo Crisis ending with the establishment of a dictatorship under Joseph-Désiré Mobutu.

Republic of Rwanda July 1, 1962 Grégoire Kayibanda (President) Flag of Rwanda (1962-2001).svg Ruanda-Urundi was originally a German colony which was occupied by Belgian troops during the East Africa Campaign during World War I. It was then governed as a League of Nations mandate, later a United Nations Trust Territories. Ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups culminated in the abolition of Rwanda's pre-colonial Tutsi monarchy in the Rwandan Revolution of 1959-61 which also led to the establishment of a Hutu-led republican government under Grégoire Kayibanda's Parmehutu party. Ruanda-Urundi split on independence into the states of Rwanda and Burundi.
Kingdom of Burundi
(modern-day Republic of Burundi)
July 1, 1962 King Mwambutsa IV
André Muhirwa (Prime Minister)
Flag of Burundi (1962-1966).svg Ruanda-Urundi was originally a German colony which was occupied by Belgian troops during the East Africa Campaign during World War I. It was then governed as a League of Nations mandate, later a United Nations Trust Territories. Unlike in neighboring Rwanda, the Burundian monarchy was also pro-Tutsi but was retained for independence and the Burundian monarchy balanced the rival Tutsi and Hutu ethnic groups and violence was restricted. Ruanda-Urundi split on independence into the states Rwanda and Burundi. Ethnic violence eventually flared in 1966 when the Prime Minister was assassinated, leading to the abolition of the monarchy.

From Spain[edit]

State created Date of independence First leaders Original flag Notes
Republic of Equatorial Guinea October 12, 1968 Francisco Macías Nguema (President) Flag of Equatorial Guinea (without coat of arms).svg Spanish Guinea

From Italy[edit]

State created Date of independence First leaders Original flag Notes
Ethiopian Empire
(today Ethiopia and Eritrea)
May 5, 1941 Haile Selassie (Emperor) Flag of Ethiopia (1897-1936; 1941-1974).svg Italian East Africa, East Africa Campaign (World War II), Abyssinia War, Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement

From Portugal[edit]

State created Date of independence First leaders Original flag Notes
Republic of Guinea-Bissau September 24, 1973 Luís Cabral (President) Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg Portuguese Guinea and Guinea-Bissau War of Independence (1963-74)
Republic of Mozambique June 25, 1975 Samora Machel (President) Flag of Mozambique (1974-1975).svg Portuguese Mozambique and Mozambiquan War of Independence (1964-74)
Cape Verde July 5, 1975 Aristides Pereira (President) Flag of Cape Verde (1975-1992).svg Fought within the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence
Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe July 12, 1975 Manuel Pinto da Costa (President) Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg

From South Africa[edit]

State created Date of independence First leaders Original flag Notes
Republic of Namibia March 21, 1990 Sam Nujoma (President) Flag of Namibia.svg *German South West Africa

From more than one colonial power[edit]

State created Date of independence Former colonial powers First leaders Original flag Notes
Somali Republic July 1, 1960 Aden Abdullah Osman Daar (President)
Abdirashid Ali Shermarke (Prime Minister)
Flag of Somalia.svg Potsdam Conference, Trust Territory of Somaliland, British Somaliland

Aftermath[edit]

Ideologies[edit]

Federations, secessionism and neocolonialism[edit]

Relations with former colonial powers[edit]

In African culture[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pakenham 1992, pp. 253–5.
  2. ^ Turner 2007, p. 28.

Pictures[edit]