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Tornadoes and Waterspouts[edit]

Tornadoes are destructive severe weather phenomena constructed by appearance of a spiralling or rotating air in the similar shape of a funnel. Tornadoes, despite being fast moving current of air, are able to inflict high quantities of damage and dramatically change any landscape and environment within their path. Tornadoes can form generally everywhere with suitable condition for the formation of a thundercloud.

Because tornadoes generally contain a lifespan no longer than mostly an hour, less information is presented for how a tornadoes actually forms[1]. Meteorologist believe that tornadoes are formed by two methods.

The first method of formation states that before a tornadoes can actually begin to form, two conditions must be first satisfied. A horizontal spinning effect has to form at the lower atmosphere by the changes within the direction and an increase in the strength of existing winds[2]. A thundercloud also have to be present for a tornadoes to form. Tornadoes mostly form within the existence of a supercell thunderstorm. During the supercell thunderstorm, the powerful updrafts, or rising warm currents, presented in the thunderstorm forces the rotating air upon the Earth's surface to upwards, turning it into a vertical rotating air. The vertical rotating air then becomes the basic foundation of the tornadoes itself. This tornadoes is often invisible unless large amount of debris and dust particles is picked up by the force of the wind.

Tornadoes are often invisible, due to being rotating updrafts. However, dust particles and debris picked up by the wind enables tornadoes to be seen.

The second method of formation states that tornadoes often form within areas where supercell thunderstorms occur. During a particular supercell thunderstorm, there is high amount of rising warm, moist air current being presented known as a updraft. This updraft is responsible for the creation of the lightning and the Cumulonimbus cloud within thunderstorms. If the winds presented in this thunderstorm intensifies and strengthens, it can cause the updrafts to rotate. This rotating updraft is known as the mesocyclone. For a tornadoes to be completely formed, a current of downdraft, or sinking cool air currents, have to presented within the rotating updraft. If this process is completed, then a tornado would be completely formed[3].

To conclude, tornadoes can generally form anywhere in the presence of thunderclouds; with thunderclouds able to form in areas bordering warm and cool air fronts(this is varied by the winds exposed, so thunderclouds are actually able to form anywhere). Even though this is true, 75% of all the tornadoes that form yearly occur in USA. Most tornadoes within USA forn in an area known as the Tornado Valley. This area is often characterized by the presence of thunderclouds, which explains why tornadoes occur there. The other 25% of the tornadoes occurrences mainly happen in areas between the tropics of cancer and capricorn and the North and South Poles. In other words, anywhere within 30-45 degrees latitude(both Northern and Southern side). Tornadoes also have a capability of forming during the occurrence of a hurricane.

Waterspouts, on the other hand are just a form of tornado that forms over bodies of water. They generally go through the same process of formation as tornadoes do. Waterspouts are also weaker than tornadoes. Waterspouts are often seen to be emerging out of the bodies of water. This appearance is caused by the winds of the Waterspouts absorbing and sucking the water molecules upwards by the updrafts and low pressure system present. Most waterspouts form in the Gulf Of Mexico and in the Pacific or Atlantic Oceans of southern states[2].



Flooding waters that occur within the Monsoon seasons can often host numerous microorganisms of protist, bacterias, and virus. These disease agent organisms thrive and spread within contaminated waters of Monsoon floodings[4]. Other disease carriers of mosquitoes and flies will laid their eggs within the contaminated bodies of water. If exposed to flood waters, these disease-agents have high possibility of entering the blood vessels of our bodies and caused infections of diseases. Parastic organisms, that live off the nutrientions of other organisms, that also be found contained within flood waters and also present a risk to infecting diseases.

Diseases that be infected with exposure to flood waters include: Malaria, Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, and the Common cold[5].

European Windstorms[edit]

European windstorms are severe local windstorms within European that develop from moving winds from the North Atlantic. These windstorms are commonly associated with the destructive extratropical cyclones and their low pressure frontal systems[6]. European windstorms occur mainly within the seasons of autumn and winter. Severe European windstorms are often characterized by heavy and large amount of precipitation and their strong adiabatic process, where the systems does not relate with its nearby surroundings despite temperature differences.[7]. Types of European windstorms includes the foehn, which is developed from dry and warm winds that descend downwards from the lee side of the Alps[8].


Formation of numerous Waterspouts in the Great Lake area.

Waterspouts are severe weather phenomena, characterized by a spiralling funnel-shaped wind current that form over bodies of water, connecting to large Cumlonimbus clouds. Waterspouts are generally defined as tornadoes, or more specifically nonsupercelled tornadoes that develop over bodies of water.[9] Waterspouts are generally weaker than most tornado and are rarer in occurrence. Waterspouts frequently form in tropical areas close to the equator, but are extremely rare within areas of high-latitude.[10] Most waterspouts have been known to develop during Summer periods, where warm temperatures are exposed over bodies of water. The heat presented causes the liquid water to evaporate, turning into warm water vapor that later develops into a Cumulus cloud. When there is no winds presented, the updrafts created by the warming temperatures can gather and organize into what is known as a waterspout.[11] Waterspouts are not known for inflicting much damage, mainly because they are not commonly seen and exposed to terrestrial environments. However, some waterspouts are capable of actually advancing upon terrestrial environments. Some waterspouts are known to produce wind speeds similar to those of hurricanes and thus are capable of producing massive amount of damage. Vegetations and weak constructed buildings and infrastructures can be destroyed by waterspouts. Automobiles can also be lifted when close enough towards advancing waterspouts. Heavy precipitation may occur within experiencing areas as well, developed by the water molecules picked by the funnel wind currents. Waterspouts don't generally last every long upon terrestrial environments as the resisting forces of friction produced can easily dissipate such weather phenomena. Strong horizontal winds can also cause waterspouts to dissipate,[11] destroying concentration of the updrafts. In aquatic environments, waterspouts can cause damages to habitats of coreal reefs and produce risks for any marine organisms close towards the surface.


A small part of the Sahara Desert. Duststorms are frequent within these areas, as less vegetation are present to hold the dust and sand particles.

A duststorm is an unusual form of windstorm that is characterized by the existence of large quantities of sand and dust particles in which are carried by moving air.[12] Duststorms frequently develop during periods of droughts and over arid and semi-arid regions, when less moisture is being presented within soil particles, which reduces their density and cause it to be easier to lift by moving air. Duststorms generally occur for only a few minutes before subsiding.

Duststorms have numerous hazards and are capable of creating deaths when actions are not taken carefully. During the occurrence of a duststorm, visibility can be reduced at dramatically, making it harder to see. This can cause exposure to these weather phenomena for extended periods of time. Reduction in visibility causes the most damage within traffic areas. Risks of collisions with other automobiles can occur within areas of duststorm occurrences. The amount of oxygen intake by respiratory organs can decrease as well[13], resulting in possibilities of suffication. Damage can also be inflicted upon external optical organs of the eyes.[14] Duststorms can produce many issues for agricultural industries as well. Soil erosion is one of the most common hazards within duststorm phenomena, decreasing lands available for producing crops. Dust and sand particles associated in duststorms can cause severe processes of weathering to occur upon infrastructures and rock formation. Nearby bodies of water can be polluted by the settling of dust and sand, causing deaths along aquatic organisms. Decrease in exposure to radiation can affect plant growth, as well as provide insulation to the heat from infrared radiation, causing increases in temperature.

Dust and sand particles associated in duststorms can also be carried away from their original area thousands of miles to other geographic locations by moving air streams.[15] While this does provide hazards for countries receiving these dust and sand particles, they also provide many benefits to certain areas. Many rainforest, like the Amazon, rely on the settling of dust and sand particles from deserts to receive nutrients required for plant growth. All duststorms don't occur naturally. The lost of vegetation by human activities can also cause duststorms to occur. One great example would be the Dust Bowl phenomenon that happened during the 1930s.

Severe Weather Influences[edit]

The frequency in which a certain severe weather phenomenon can occur or even where it occurs can be influenced and changed significantly by various changes made within the atmosphere and the Earth's crust[16]. These changes upon the Earth's atmosphere and crust is capable of causing small or large effects varying to severe weathers occurrences depending on the type of influence made; the location; and how much of the changes were made.

Artifical Influences[edit]

Artificial influences upon severe weather phenomena are created and formed by human activities.

Greenhouse gas emissions[edit]

The increasing usage of fossil fuels as a primary energy sources for powering machinery has lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions for the past years. This emissioning of greenhouse gas is increasing the strength of the greenhouse gas effect upon the Earth's atmosphere, which in turn traps heat from the infrared radiation of the Sun. This has led to an increase in temperatures within the Earth's atmosphere which will then influence the temperature upon the surface. This process of heating is known as Global Warming. The increase in heat will raise the temperature variations between each region, varying upon geological points. With temperatures rising, updrafts are more common within regions, so tornadoes; hurricanes; thunderstorms; or any other weather phenomenon requiring the presence of updrafts may increase in occurrence within certain countries. Blizzards and other winter storms will decrease in occurrence, due to high amount of heat being presented that would otherwise prevent snow or other forms of solid water from developing. Glaciers and icebergs are melting because of the warming, which can increase chances of heavy precipitation, with more bodies of water presented in certain areas. Heatwaves may also become more frequent in all geographic areas.

Possible evidence of this have been shown throughout the world, with many changes and variations within climates. One possible example of this is increasing amount of tornado discoveries. More tornadoes have been spotted throughout the regions of the Tornado Alley and within many other countries located at mid-latitude. While this is evidence of the effects Global Warming could have on climates, meteorologist believe that this increase in the discovery of tornadoes could be just influenced by the more advanced technologies available to discover tornadoes and the more knowledge gained about them, as well as the rise of public awareness[17].

Check List Of Artifical Influences[edit]

  • Greenhouse Gas emissions (Done, but more details and citations are required)
  • Habitat Destructions
    • Deforestation
    • Retreating Glaciers/Icebergs
  • Urbanization
    • Heat Island Effect
  • Industries

(More will be added when found)

Natural Influences[edit]

Natural influences upon severe weather phenomena are influences that were created and formed naturally.

Volcano eruptions[edit]

Volcanoes are fissures within the Earth's crust that are connected to the Earth's Mantle layer, capable of erupting high quantities of magma and lava into the Earth's surface[18]. During the duration of such events, volcanoes can often release high amounts of ash particles and sulfur atoms into the atmosphere. Ash particles, containing less mass than the air within the atmosphere, stay afloat for long varying duration before falling down, while the sulfur atoms mix with the oxygen molecules within the atmosphere, forming sulfur dioxide. These ash particles and sulfur dioxide, with their density can block the Sun's radiation and keep them from penetrating and reaching the Earth's crust. With less or no radiation, surface and atmospheric temperatures will decrease dramatically. Without radiation, updrafts of warm air currents are unable to form, thus severe weather phenomena of hurricanes, tornadoes, waterspouts, thunderstorms, or any other weather phenomena requiring the presence of updrafts would be unable to develop. Precipitation in the form of acid rain have a possibility to develop[19], as the sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere can form compounds with the water molecules in the air.

Check List For Natural Influences[edit]

  • El Nino (In progress)
  • La Nina
  • Volcanic Eruptions (Done, but need more details; perhaps more incitations?)
  • Organisms
    • Plants
    • Animals
    • Microorganisms
      • Protist
        • Algae
  • Movements Of Tectonic Plates
    • Geological Formations - Mountains, Valleys etc.

(More will be added when found)


Various methods have been created and developed in past and present to help and assist in the prevention or to the reduce the damage inflicted by severe weather phenomena. These method don't always work and often worsens the situation provided[17].

Check List Of Prevention Methods For Various Hazards Of Severe Weather[edit]


  • Dams used to stop flow of water
  • Ditches
  • Vegetations
  • Bodies Of Water





  • Water
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Controlled Fire
  • Sand