User:Madalibi/History of moxibustion

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Origins and early history[edit]

, Wushi'er Bingfang, all found in Mawangdui (see Mawangdui Silk Texts).

The origin of cauterization (the burning of the skin for therapeutic purpose) and moxibustion (cauterization with moxa) in China is unclear. Japanese historian Yamada Keiji suspects. The first textual evidence for therapeutic cauterization dates to about 200 BC, when the texts that were found in the Han tomb sealed in 168 BC were copied. A text titled Recipes for Fifty-Two Ailments and two Cauterization CanonsYin Yang Shiyi Mai Jiujing and Zubi Shiyi Mai Jiujing – recommend cauterization for various illnesses. They do not mention moxa, so this is not moxibustion. These texts also do not mention acupuncture, which appeared later.

3rd-14th centuries in China[edit]

Moxibustion in Japan[edit]

In late imperial China[edit]

According to a nineteenth-century Chinese saying, acupuncture and moxibustion were "absolutely inappropriate to all gentlemen".[1]

Twentieth century[edit]

Cheng Dan'an, who modernized acupuncture points in the 1930s, As practiced at the time, moxibustion often resulted in burns and scars. Besides advocating the use of fine needles for acupuncture, Cheng Dan'an suggested that moxa not be allowed to burn the skin directly.[2]



  1. ^ Andrews 2014, p. 197.
  2. ^ Andrews 2014, p. 203.

Works cited[edit]

  • Andrews, Bridie (2014), The Making of Modern Chinese Medicine, 1850–1960, Vancouver: UBC Press, ISBN 978-0-7748-2432-3 .

Further reading[edit]

  • Goldschmidt, Asaf (2009), The Evolution of Chinese Medicine: Song Dynasty, 960–1200, London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-42655-8. 
  • Harper, Donald (1998), Early Chinese Medical Literature: The Mawangdui Medical Manuscripts, London and New York: Kegan Paul International, ISBN 978-0-7103-0582-4. 
  • Liao, Yuqun 廖育群 (2012) [1991], "Qin Han zhi ji zhenjiu liaofa lilun de jianli" 秦漢之際鍼灸療法理論的建立" [The formation of the theory of acumoxa therapy in the Qin and Han periods], in Liao Yuqun, Chonggou Qin–Han yixue tuxiang 重构亲秦汉医学图图像 [Reconstructing a picture of Qin and Han medicine], pp. 311–21. Originally published in Ziran kexue yanjiu 自然科學研究 [Research in the natural sciences], 10 (1991), pp. 272–79.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |trans_chapter= (help); Unknown parameter |author-name-separator= ignored (help)
  • Lo, Vivienne (2001). "The Influence of Nurturing Life Culture on the Development of Western Han Acumoxa Therapy". In Elisabeth Hsü (ed.). Innovation in Chinese Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 19–50.  .
  • ——— (2013). "The Han Period". In TJ Hinrichs and Linda L.Barnes (eds). Chinese Medicine and Healing: An Illustrated History. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 31–64. ISBN 978-0-674-04737-2.  .
  • Lu, Gwei-djen; Needham, Joseph (1980), Celestial Lancets: A History and Rationale of Acupuncture and Moxa, New York and London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-700-71458-2. 
  • Unschuld, Paul U. (1985), Medicine in China: A History of Ideas, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-05023-5. 
  • Yamada, Keiji 山田慶児 (1985). "Shinkyū to tōeki no kigen 鍼灸と湯液の起源" [The origin of acumoxa and medicinal decoctions]. In Yamada Keiji (ed.). Shin hatsugen Chūgoku kagakushi shiryō no kenkyū 新発現中国科学史資料の研究 [Research on newly discovered documents on the history of Chinese science]. Volume 2. Kyoto: Kyōto daigaku jinbun kagaku kenkyūjo 京都大学人文科学研究所. pp. 3–122.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |trans_title= (help) .
  • Yu, Gengzhe (2007), "The progression of moxibustion therapy in Tang and Song Dynasty folk medicine: An analysis on the background of technology choice", Frontiers of History in China, 2 (3) .